Foundations of User-Centered Design
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DESCRIPTIONFoundations of User-Centered Design. Questions about the Project?. Done in groups ~4 members Projects must have at least two real users (who are not members of the team) Find a project that you can get excited about Find people with shared goals, vision, and work style Get started now! - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Foundations of User-Centered Design
Questions about the Project?Done in groups~4 membersProjects must have at least two real users (who are not members of the team)Find a project that you can get excited aboutFind people with shared goals, vision, and work styleGet started now!If you have a project, start selling it
Types of ProjectsInduce change:Take an existing interaction and make it more efficient or add new capabilities
Invent new formsEnable new behaviors
Refrain fromBuilding from the ground upInvesting too much in the back endYet another attempt at a well known or commonly pursued interface:To do lists, grocery finders, course schedulers, apartment finders, mail or news readers, etc.
FridayYou will conduct a brainstorming activity with a small group.
You dont NEED to have a specific idea for this.
Next MondayYou will each make a ONE MINUTE pitch of an idea.
You will submit two power point slides prior to class.
Hall of Fame or Shame?My task: after taking a cup and filling it with soda, I need to put a lid on the cup
AnalysisWhy is the first one a candidate for Hall of Shame, while the other is a candidate for the Hall of Fame?Mappings
But: must consider context
Another taste of what youll be doing.
A two-person gameStart with the numbers 1, 2, 3, ..., 9Alternate turns, taking one number at a timePlayer one Xs out the number they want to takePayer two circles the number they want to takeA player wins when they have any 3 numbers that sum to 15e.g., 1, 3, 9, 5 wins because 1+9+5 equals 15If numbers are all used with no winner, the game is a draw
OK, now try it another way
Now, observe Do you really need the numbers?
An interface is a representation of a problem/task
A well-designed interface can wholly transform a task, making it much simpler
Moving On Todays ObjectivesRefresh your memory" of some basic human psychologyBegin to discuss design principles based on these principles
The Core Process of UI DesignUnderstand User Behavior
Map Behavior to Interaction
Human CognitionIts Human-Computer Interaction, User Interface Design so we need to understand something about human capabilities so a very brief overview of human cognitive capabilities as relevant to HCI
Human CognitionAttentionPerception and recognitionMemoryLearningProblem solving and reasoning
AttentionFrom the range of available possibilities, select what to concentrate onVisual or auditory scanningFactors that affect ease of focusing on the right stuff:Specificity of goalsInformation display
Attention Design ImplicationsInformation relevant to the current task should be salientGraphical techniques layout, ordering, organization, underlining, color, animation can be used to achieve this goalBut dont visually clutter the interface: plain interfaces can be easier to use
Attention - ExampleMy Task Enter the query task centered user interface design into a search engine.
Consider two interfaces that support web search; evaluate both from the perspective of being able to focus on where to enter your query.
PerceptionAcquiring information from the environment Involves using different senses Vision is dominant sense for sighted peopleResults in internal experience of external events
Perception Design ImplicationsIcons should be designed so users can easily distinguish their meaningsSounds should be clearly audible and distinguishableText should be legible and distinguishable from the background
Perception - ExampleMy goal is to read the new messages in an online forum
Icons: are their meanings clear?Attention: easy to focus on the right stuff?
Also true for auditory cuesMicrosoft Money generates the Exclamation sound whenever a new transaction is entered into an account.Annoying in its own rightBut is this the proper choice of sounds?
MemoryShort-Term MemoryInstant, effortless recall Severely limited capacity 7 plus or minus 2ChunkingFragileLong-Term MemoryUnlimited capacityTakes time/effort to store and retrieveInterpretativeRetrieval is context-sensitiverote memory vs. relationships vs. explanation
Memory (continued)People are really good at remembering some thingsVisual cues, especially facesPeople are much better at recognizing things than recalling themPeople are good at associative remindingPeople remember the typical case and the exceptions
Memory Design ImplicationsDont make users remember complicated proceduresLimit number of items in text menusDesign interfaces that promote recognition over recallGive users resources to help them visually encode information (colors, icons, time stamps, etc.)
More than 7 +- 2 items in menu bad?
Visual representation of contacts recognition, not recallPicturesSpatial organization of information
LearningAcquiring new knowledge or skillsExploratory learning learning by doingScaffolding or training wheels
Learning Design ImplicationsCreate interfaces that encourage explorationEasy to try out and undo actionsDesign interfaces that constrain and guide users to select the right actionProvide multiple, linked representations
Problem solving and reasoningConscious/reflective activityThinking over ones optionsFiguring out the best option or solutionMaking a planWeighing pros and cons
Problem solving Design ImplicationsProvide the proper information and aidsBut, even better design to make problem-solving and reasoning unnecessary
ExampleWhats the best flight from Vancouver to Montreal?TimeLayoversPlane changesPrice
Representation 1* Time zones: van-cal + 1 ; cal tor, mon + 2
AC 117VancouverCalgary7:009:00Cdn 321VancouverCalgary9:0012:00Cdn 355CalgaryMontreal13:3019:30AC 123CalgaryToronto12:3016:30AC 123TorontoMontreal16:4517:30
Representation 2VancouverCalgaryTorontoMontreal791113151781012141618101214161820AC 117AC 123Cdn 321Cdn 355
Another Example:Tax Preparation SoftwareUser doesnt have to do computationUser doesnt have to figure out which form to useInstead, software poses questions that users are likely to be able to answer
Next StepsReading: Start reading DOET (Finish by Sept. 9) Project:It Bugs Me Activity Bring to class FridayBegin brainstorming ideas Bring next MondayNext class:Studio : It Bugs Me and getting to know each other