first aid course 2006 siw sandell first aid instructor first aid course patricia ruotsalainen first...
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First Aid Course 2006 Siw Sandell First Aid Instructor First Aid Course Patricia ruotsalainen First Aid Instructor 2011 Slide 2 Course Outline Introduction Test your First Aid knowledge and skills Principals of First Aid Basic Human Anatomy (Bonus) Assess the situation Call for help Unconscious victim Airway obstruction CPR Shock Bleeding & infections Fractures & soft tissue injuries Medical emergencies Slide 3 Course Outline (2) Assess and observe Initial observation of the whole scene Stay calm Slide 4 Aim: To provide you with basic skills and knowledge in order to recognize and provide First Aid for circulatory and respiratory emergencies (CPR) and to recognize a range of common illnesses and injuries. Learning outcome: Demonstrate knowledge of the principals of first aid knowledge of basic human anatomy ability in the examination of a victim competence in the provision of CPR knowledge of identifying a range of common illnesses and injuries First aid management for a range of common illnesses and injuries Slide 5 Principals and priorities of First Aid To preserve life ____________________________ To prevent the injury or condition worsening ______________________________________________ ___________________________________________`___ To promote recovery ____________________________ Stay calm Assess the situation Safety of First Aider Safety of other people Safety of victim Airway Breathing Circulation Use of bystanders to maintain Safety Do No Harm Slide 6 What has happened? Slide 7 The Vital Link Early access Early Defibrillation Early CPR Early ACLS Slide 8 Slide 9 Slide 10 Calling for help! 112 1.What has happened? 2.Where? 3.How Many? 4.Answer questions. 5.Do not hang up! Wait for the operator to tell you when to hang up. 6.Guide the helpers to the right place. Slide 11 Check the victim for response Not responding Call 112 and Open Airway Slide 12 Check for normal breathing Look for chest movement. Listen to the victims mouth for breath sounds. Feel for air on your cheek. Slide 13 Unconscious victim if breathing place in Recovery position Slide 14 Recovery position Tongue Slide 15 Obstructed Airway Unconscious victim drug or alcohol abuse Foreign object like food, ice, toys, dentures, broken teeth, vomits Tissue damage accident related, poisons, fights Slide 16 Obstructed airway continues Swelling Respiratory infections, allergic reaction Paralyzed airway brain damage, damage to spinal cord, poisoning Heart diseases may collect liquid in the lungs Slide 17 Obstructed Airway Deliver 5 back slaps x 2 between the shoulder blades Tell the victim to cough Slide 18 Heimlich maneuver If still not breathing give abdominal thrusts 5- 6 times Slide 19 First Aid for choking 1.Tell the victim to cough! 2.Deliver 5 back slaps 3.If not breathing 5 back slaps 4.If not breathing Heimlich maneuver (abdominal thrusts) 5 6 times 5. Finger sweep and check breathing 6. If not breathing repeat abdominal thrusts If unconscious call for help repeat steps 1 to 6 x 3 No CPR Slide 20 Disorders of the Heart Angina Pectoris Narrowed coronary arteries Heart Attack Obstructed (clot) coronary arteries Cardiac Arrest Sudden stoppage of the heart (blood loss, suffocation, electric shock, anaphylactic shock, drug overdose, hypothermia) Ventricular fibrillation ( VF ) Heart fibrillates no regular beat Slide 21 Angina pectoris Reduced blood supply to the heart during times of stress. Produces pain in the chest similar to that of heart attack Slide 22 Watch CPR DVD Slide 23 Adult Life Support ADULT CARDIO PULMONARY RESUSCITATION CPR 30 CHEST COMPRESSIONS : 2 BREATHS Slide 24 Child Life Support CHILD CARDIO PULMONARY RESUSCITATION CPR under 8 years old Start with 5 breaths and then continue with 30 chest compressions : 2 breaths Slide 25 Every minute counts Clinical death: Heart stops Biological death: Brain death Slide 26 Chances of recovery CPR must be commmenced immidiately! The time from stoppage of the heart to permanent death of brain tissue is aprox. 4 minutes. The avarage response time by an ambulance is 7 - 8 minutes (whole country 15-20 minutes). Someone is needed to sustain life until the ambulance arrives! Slide 27 Practice CPR Slide 28 Arterieal-Venous-Capillary Bleeding Slide 29 Blood volumes PatientTotal Blood Volume Lethal Blood loss if not replaced (rapid) Adult male5 6.6 liters2 liters Adolescent3.3 4.5 liters1.3 liters Child1.5 2 liters0.5 0.7 liters Infant300+ milliliters3050 milliliters Slide 30 First Aid for bleeding 1.Elevate above heart level Blood flow subsides 2. Lie down the victim Prevents shock 3. Calm down Less oxygen 4. Apply pressure dressing 5. Apply indirect pressure Not more than 10 minutes Slide 31 Nosebleed Slide 32 Practice pressure bandage! Slide 33 What is shock? Slide 34 Shock happens when There is a problem with your: Pump:You need to have a functioning heart to pump blood around Pipes:You need functioning vessels to carry the blood. Plasma: You need adequate blood in the system. If there is a loss, there will not be adequate volume circulating. Slide 35 Signs of shock SignsReason Alerted mental status: Anxiety Restlessness Combativeness Brain not receiving enough oxygen Skin: Pale Cold Clammy Body tries to correct problem by diverting blood from non-vital to vital organs (from skin to heart) Slide 36 Signs of shock continues Nausea and vomiting Blood diverted from digestive system Changes in vital signs As body tries to pump more blood Rapid pulse (>120 = serious) Respiration rapid (>24 = serious) Other signs: Thirst, dilated pupils, sometimes cyanosis Slide 37 Treatment of shock 1.Treat any cause of shock you identify. 2.Stay calm and reassure the victim 3.Lay down the victim and slightly elevate his legs. 4.Maintain normal body temperature 5.Give nothing to drink 6.Check and record breathing, pulse and level of response. Slide 38 Slide 39 Shock continues Anaphylactic shock Is a massive allergic reaction by the bodys immune system. Fainting Is a self-correcting form of shock resulting from temporary lack of blood flow to the brain. Slide 40 Slide 41 Musculoskeletal injuries Fractures any break in a bone Dislocation when one end of a bone making up a joint is pulled or pushed out of place Sprain when a ligament is torn (ankle, knee, finger) Strain stretching of a muscle or tendon or mild tearing of muscle (neck, lower back) Slide 42 R I C E R Rest the injured part I Apply Ice C Compress the injury E Elevate the injured part Slide 43 Medical emergencies Do you know First Aid for Asthma ? Diabetes ? Seizures ? Slide 44 Priorities of Emergency Care Highest priority for Injuries: Airway obstruction Severe breathing difficulty Burns involving the respiratory tract Cardiac arrest Severe bleeding Shock Spinal Injury Severe head injury Open chest injuries Open abdominal wounds Slide 45 Priorities for Emergency Care Highest priority for Medical Problems: Heart attack Stroke Heat stroke Poisoning Childbirth Diabetic emergencies Slide 46 Bonus points Read through the Human anatomy handout and answer study questions. You have until next week Monday to come to my office and show me your answers. Slide 47 Thank you !