fig. 16-16b6 template strand 5 5 3 3 rna primer 3 5 5 3 1 1 3 3 5 5 okazaki fragment 1 2 3 3 5 5 1 2...

Download Fig. 16-16b6 Template strand 5 5 3 3 RNA primer 3 5 5 3 1 1 3 3 5 5 Okazaki fragment 1 2 3 3 5 5 1 2 3 3 5 5 1 2 5 5 3 3 Overall direction of replication

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Fig. 16-16b6 Template strand 5 5 3 3 RNA primer 3 5 5 3 1 1 3 3 5 5 Okazaki fragment 1 2 3 3 5 5 1 2 3 3 5 5 1 2 5 5 3 3 Overall direction of replication Slide 2 The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology DNA RNA Protein Trait Slide 3 RNA vs. DNA Study the images of the two molecules and observe their similarities & differences. Slide 4 Basic Principles of Transcription and Translation RNA is the intermediate between genes and the proteins for which they code Transcription is the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA Transcription produces messenger RNA (mRNA) Translation is the synthesis of a polypeptide, which occurs under the direction of mRNA Ribosomes are the sites of translation Slide 5 The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology DNA RNA Protein Trait Transferring genetic information into protein. Slide 6 Transcription: Rewriting DNA into mRNA Enzymes add nucleotides to mRNA from 5 to 3 Transcription is initiated at a of DNA that promoter, a sequence signals the start of a gene Slide 7 Enzymes Modify the pre-mRNA Enzymes attach a cap to the mRNA which binds the mRNA to the ribosome Enzymes attach a tail of nucleotides to the mRNA, this controls the lifespan of the mRNA Slide 8 mRNA is Spliced Introns: Non-coding regions of DNA Exons: Coding regions of DNA Slide 9 The Functional and Evolutionary Importance of Introns Some genes can encode more than one kind of polypeptide, depending on which segments are treated as exons during RNA splicing The number of different proteins an organism can produce is much greater than its number of genes Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Slide 10 The Genetic Code How are the instructions for assembling amino acids into proteins encoded into DNA? There are 20 amino acids, but there are only four nucleotide bases in DNA How many bases correspond to an amino acid? Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Slide 11 Codons: Triplets of Bases The flow of information from gene to protein is based on a triplet code: a series of nonoverlapping, three-nucleotide words Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Slide 12 During transcription, one of the two DNA strands called the template strand provides a template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript During translation, the mRNA base triplets, called codons, are read in the 5 to 3 direction Each codon specifies the amino acid to be placed at the corresponding position along a polypeptide Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Slide 13 Codons along an mRNA molecule are read by translation machinery in the 5 to 3 direction Each codon specifies the addition of one of 20 amino acids Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Slide 14 Fig. 17-4 DNA molecule Gene 1 Gene 2 Gene 3 DNA template strand TRANSCRIPTION TRANSLATION mRNA Protein Codon Amino acid Slide 15 The Genetic Code Slide 16 Translation: The RNA directed synthesis of a polypeptide Slide 17 Molecules of tRNA are not identical: Each carries a specific amino acid on one end Each has an anticodon on the other end; the anticodon base-pairs with a complementary codon on mRNA Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Slide 18 Translation mRNA codons are translated into a polypeptide chain Slide 19 Ribosomes Ribosomes facilitate specific coupling of tRNA anticodons with mRNA codons in protein synthesis The two ribosomal subunits (large and small) are made of proteins and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Slide 20 A ribosome has three binding sites for tRNA: The P site holds the tRNA that carries the growing polypeptide chain The A site holds the tRNA that carries the next amino acid to be added to the chain The E site is the exit site, where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Slide 21 Fig. 17-18-4 Amino end of polypeptide mRNA 5 3 E P site A site GTP GDP E P A E PA GTP Ribosome ready for next aminoacyl tRNA E P A Slide 22 During and after synthesis, a polypeptide chain spontaneously coils and folds into its three-dimensional shape Proteins may also require post- translational modifications before doing their job Some polypeptides are activated by enzymes that cleave them Other polypeptides come together to form the subunits of a protein Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Slide 23 Fig. 17-25 TRANSCRIPTION RNA PROCESSING DNA RNA transcript 3 5 RNA polymerase Poly-A RNA transcript (pre-mRNA) Intron Exon NUCLEUS Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase AMINO ACID ACTIVATION Amino acid tRNA CYTOPLASM Poly-A Growing polypeptide 3 Activated amino acid mRNA TRANSLATION Cap Ribosomal subunits Cap 5 E P A A Anticodon Ribosome Codon E

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