epilogue: death and dying. t hanatology thanatology the study of death and dying

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Epilogue: Death and Dying Slide 2 T HANATOLOGY Thanatology The study of death and dying Slide 3 Slide 4 D EATH AND H OPE U NDERSTANDING D EATH T HROUGHOUT THE L IFE S PAN Death in Childhood Children have a different perspective of death. Slide 5 D EATH IN A DOLESCENCE AND E MERGING A DULTHOOD Teenagers have little fear of death Adolescents often predict that they will die at an early age Slide 6 D EATH IN A DULTHOOD When adults become responsible for work and family death is to be avoided or at least postponed. Death anxiety usually increases from ones teens to ones 20s and then gradually decreases. Ages 25 to 60: Terminally ill adults worry about leaving something undone or leaving family membersespecially childrenalone. Slide 7 D EATH IN L ATE A DULTHOOD Death anxiety decreases and hope rises. Mental health Many older adults accept death Slide 8 D YING AND A CCEPTANCE Good death Bad death Slide 9 H ONEST C ONVERSATION Stages of Dying I. Kbler-Ross: Identified emotions experienced by dying people, which she divided into a sequence of five stages: 1. Denial (I am not really dying.) 2. Anger (I blame my doctors, or my family, or God for my death.) 3. Bargaining (I will be good from now on if I can live.) 4. Depression (I dont care about anything; nothing matters anymore.) 5. Acceptance (I accept my death as part of life.) Slide 10 H ONEST C ONVERSATION II. Stage Model based on Maslows hierarchy of needs : 1. Physiological needs (freedom from pain) 2. Safety (no abandonment) 3. Love and acceptance (from close family and friends) 4. Respect (from caregivers) 5. Self-actualization (spiritual transcendence) Slide 11 T HE H OSPICE Hospice An institution or program in which terminally ill patients receive palliative care Two principles for hospice care: 1. Each patients autonomy and decisions are respected. 2. Family members and friends are counseled before the death, shown how to provide care, and helped after the death. Slide 12 Slide 13 P ALLIATIVE M EDICINE Palliative care Care designed not to treat an illness but to provide physical and emotional comfort to the patient and support and guidance to his or her family. Slide 14 C HOICES AND C ONTROVERSIES WHEN IS A PERSON DEAD? Brain death: Prolonged cessation of all brain activity with complete absence of voluntary movements Locked-in syndrome: The person cannot move, except for the eyes, but brain waves are still apparent; the person is not dead. Slide 15 C HOICES AND C ONTROVERSIES Coma: A state of deep unconsciousness from which the person cannot be aroused. Vegetative state: A state of deep unconsciousness in which all cognitive functions are absent, although eyes may open, sounds may be emitted, and breathing may continue; the person is not yet dead. Slide 16 HASTENING OR POSTPONING DEATH Longer Life The average person lived twice as long in 2010 as in 1910. Later death due to drugs, surgery, and other interventions (e.g., respirators, defibrillators, stomach tubes, and antibiotics). Slide 17 ALLOWING DEATH Passive Euthanasia DNR (do not resuscitate) Slide 18 ALLOWING DEATH Active Euthanasia Physician-Assisted Suicide Slide 19 A DVANCE D IRECTIVES Advance Directive Living Will Health Care Proxy Slide 20 B EREAVEMENT Normal Grief Bereavement The sense of loss following a death Grief The powerful sorrow that an individual feels at the death of another Mourning The ceremonies and behaviors that a religion or culture prescribes for people to employ in expressing their bereavement after a death