Enterprise Architecture Strategy driven Enterprise Architecture

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  • Enterprise ArchitectureStrategy driven Enterprise Architecture

    Adrian Campbell

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    Enterprise ArchitectureWhat is Enterprise Architecture?

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    IT responding to Business needsTraditionally, IT's response to business requirements has been to give each user what they wanted, if possible when they wanted it. Applications were built according to the specifications of a particular constituency of users without much thought for the impact on the rest of the enterprise. And as long as the business operated as a collection of discrete business processes, that was okay. Unfortunately, this approach spawned a collection of discrete applications, with discrete and individual data formats. When the business needed to integrate those silo applications to support changing business processes or to integrate application and off the shelf products, chaos ensued.

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    IT response to ChaosThe response of IT was to become more precise, creating technology standards that appeared arbitrary to the business, requiring elaborate time consuming development processes and detailed documentation for new systems and changes to existing systems. While IT believed that they were imposing a formal discipline on a chaotic system, the business could only see that these stringent requirements stifled innovation and made it difficult for the business to be agile in response to sometimes rapidly changing market requirements.

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    Business response to ITFaced with seemingly arbitrary standards, it was not uncommon for the business to go its own way and develop applications in isolation from ITThis led to further chaos and complexities within the enterprise that interfered with the ability of the business to get services from the IT organisation.

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    Business StrategyWhat is the Business Strategy?What is the target operating model ?How do you link the Business Strategy to IT execution?New technologies such as SOA are not enoughBusiness agility and flexibility are importantIncreasing costs need to be controlledSilo Applications need to be consolidation

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    TrendsThe current trend in organisations is a renewed focus on business process management (BPM).This is now allowing business users to make immediate changes to their business process models (BPMN), combined with the technology to implement these changes in near real time, to a process orchestration and execution environment (BPEL). This trend drives better business and IT alignment and the ability to trace the business strategy straight through to the business execution.

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    Business TrendsImproving business processesControlling increasing operating costsSupporting competitive advantageImproving profits

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    Strategic PrioritiesDelivery projects that enable business growthLinking Business and IT strategies and plansBuilding business skills in the IT organisationBuilding IT skills in the businessDemonstrating the business value of ITMeasuring service levels and performance

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    Technology InvestmentsBusiness Intelligence applicationsSecurity ArchitectureMobile workforce applicationsCollaboration technologiesCustomer sales and self service applications

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    Strategy & EA Leading organizations use a business strategy driven architecture approach that focuses on translating the key components of the business strategy into a future state vision and an architecture road map they can implement. Enterprise architecture is integrated with other strategic planning disciplines, such as programme/project and application portfolio and managementThe Enterprise Architecture ensures that the long-term vision of the business is preserved as the enterprise builds new business capabilities and improves on old ones.

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    Current to TargetEnterprise Architecture is an iterative process that produces four major deliverables:

    A future-state Enterprise Architecture reference model that realises the business strategy Current-state Enterprise Architecture model (just enough)A gap analysis that identifies the shortfalls of the current state in terms of its ability to support the strategies of the enterpriseAn Architecture Roadmap that defines the initiatives required to migrate from the current state into the future state

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    Enterprise Architecture as StrategyAn Enterprise Architecture driven out of the business strategy provides the enterprise with the highest degree of alignment between the business and IT.The concept of Enterprise Architecture has expanded well beyond the traditional notion of technology architecture. It is now the architecture of the whole enterprise.

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    Definition of Enterprise ArchitectureA definition of Enterprise Architecture is addressed in 2 constituent parts enterprise and architecture. The Open Group defines enterprise as follows:An enterprise is any collection of organisations that has a common set of goals and/or a single bottom line. In that sense, an enterprise can be a government agency, a whole corporation, a division of a corporation, a single department, or a chain of geographically distant organisations linked together by common ownership. Gartner define architecture as follows;The grand design or overall concept employed in creating a system, as in the architecture of a city or a customer information system; also "an abstraction or design of a system, its structure, components and how they interrelate" A family of guidelines (concepts, policies, principles, rules, patterns, interfaces and standards) to use when building a new IT capability.

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    Purpose of Enterprise ArchitectureEnterprise Architecture is designed to ensures alignment between the business and IT strategies, operating model, guiding principles, and the software development projects and service delivery. By taking a global, enterprise-wide, perspective across all the business services, business processes, information, applications and technology, Enterprise Architecture ensures the enterprise goals and objectives are addressed in a holistic way across all the application development projects and their deployment into production.

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    EA Process

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    Gartner EA Process

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    Architecture DomainsArchitecture DomainsStrategy, Vision & PrinciplesBusiness ServicesBusiness Process ArchitectureOrganisation ArchitectureInformation ArchitectureApplication ArchitectureTechnology ArchitecturePerformanceThese architecture domains are interdependent and are developed simultaneously to ensure that the architecture reflects the optimal alignment of IT and the execution environment in support of the business strategy and target operating model.

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    Archimate Framework

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    Strategy, Vision & PrinciplesConcerns the motivation behind the Enterprise Architecture answering the Why questions. Addresses these in terms of the Business and IT Strategies, Target Operating Model, Vision, Principles, Goals and Objectives.

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    Business ServicesConcerns the Products and Services that are offered and sold to customers and partners.Addresses these in terms of Business Services, Contracts and Value provided.

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    Process ArchitectureConcerns the transformations that are performed in the Enterprise answering the How questions.Addresses these in terms of the Business Processes, Activities, Workflows (Value Streams), Scenarios and Business Events.

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    Organisation ArchitectureConcerns the people perspective in the Enterprise answering the Who question.Addresses these in terms of the Locations, Business Actors (people and organisation units), Business Roles and Business Functions (responsibilities), from both an internal (staff, partners) and external (customers, agents) perspective.

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    Information ArchitectureInformation Architecture includes the knowledge, information and data that flows through the business processes and the data that is accessed and stored by applications.Answers the What question in the Enterprise Architecture. The What refers to the things or assets which the enterprise needs to know about, use or create.

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    Application ArchitectureAddresses the When question in the enterprise, in terms of interaction and dialogue.Answering the How question in terms of the calculations and algorithms needed to implement the transformations in the enterprise.

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    Technology ArchitectureTechnology Architecture defines the technologies and infrastructure that support the applicationsAddresses the Where questions in the enterprise in terms of nodes, networks, devices, system software, communication infrastructure and persistent data storage.

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    PerformanceWhereas the Strategy, Vision & Principles provides the future direction for the Enterprise, the Performance Architecture is concerned with whether the goals and objectives have been achieved. These are addressed in terms of status, business results, performance metrics and measurements.

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    Traceability View

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    Levels of Concern

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    Traceability

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    Cube View

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    The Enterprise Architecture isAn analysis tool to provide abstraction and modelling capabilities at all levels and perspective of the enterprise architectureA planning tool to translate strategic thinking into architecture roadmap of future development and integrationAn analysis tool to clearly plot the key relationships and dependencies between the business services, business processes, applications and technologyA decision-making tool to provide a framework for evaluating-, selecting and justifying strategic development options and architecture decisionsA design tool to provide the required support, in the form of

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