emergency plan of action (epoa) kenya: drought

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  • Emergency Appeal Operation MDRKE030

    Date of issue: 29.08.14 Date of disaster:

    Operation Manager: Dennis Kjeldsen, Operations Coordinator, IFRC

    Point of contact: Abbas Gullet, Secretary General, Kenya Red Cross Society

    Operation start date: August 2014 Expected timeframe: 9 months (May 2015)

    Overall operation budget: CHF 8,512,016

    Number of people affected: 2,108,233 Number of people to be assisted: 649,175

    Host National Society presence: Branches in the targeted areas Red Cross Red Crescent Movement partners actively involved in the operation (if available and relevant): IFRC and various Participating National Societies

    Other partner organizations actively involved in the operation: Government of Kenya, National Disaster Management Agency, UNICEF, OCHA and WFP.

    A. Situation analysis

    Description of the disaster

    The poor performance of the long rains March May 2014 in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands both in pastoral and marginal agriculture livelihood zones (the North Western, Northern, North Eastern, South Eastern and parts of Coast) has affected household food availability as well as livestock productivity. The situation has been worsened by increasing food prices (which continually erode household purchasing power)) driven by increase in costs of fuel, and general inflation. The Kenya Food Security Steering Group 2013 short rains assessment conducted in February 2014 indicated that poor performance of the 2013 short rains had resulted in more people becoming food insecure. The National Disaster Management Authority, through its routine early warning system bulletins, January - June 2014, issued drought alerts in Mandera, Turkana, Baringo, Samburu, Wajir and Marsabit Counties with the trend either worsening or deteriorating. Earlier during the year in January 2014, the Government of Kenya declared an impending drought with an estimated 1.6 Million Kenyans being highlighted as requiring emergency food assistance. Short term food assistance was provided by the government to affected counties with an anticipation that the conditions will improve with the long rain seasons. Based on the short rains assessment report carried out, WFP increased the beneficiaries on food assistance from 800,000 to 1.3 million (Annex1). According to the SMART survey results released by the Nutrition Information Working Group in June/July 2014, the nutritional status in the target counties has deteriorated as compared to June 2013. The worst hit sub-counties are Turkana Central, Mandera North and Marsabit North/Loiyangalani with global acute malnutrition (GAM) rates of up to 28.7%, 27.3% and 29.2% respectively as compared to the same time last year when the GAM rates were 17.2%, 16.8% and 24.5% respectively. Other affected counties include; Baringo (GAM 21.1%), Samburu (GAM 17.3%) and Wajir (highest GAM rates 20.7%). These malnutrition levels are categorized from critical to very critical, requiring urgent action combined with measures to reduce chances of recurrence in the future. Affected communities have resorted to negative coping mechanisms which include reduction in the number of meals per day, reduction in the amount and variety of food consumed, consumption of wild berries and fruits, reduced food diversity, purchase of food on credit, sharing of relief food (WFP beneficiaries sharing their food rations with non-beneficiaries), charcoal burning, rural-urban migration in search of menial jobs in urban centres and co-habitation with already impoverished relatives.

    Emergency Plan of Action (EPoA)

    Kenya: Drought

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    A number of inter-tribal and inter-clan conflicts were experienced in 2013 in several counties and have continued into this year, contributing to the increase in food insecurity of the affected counties. The conflicts have also led to the destruction or looting of properties, disruption of livelihood activities due to displacement of communities and destruction of communal watering points. The current food insecurity and emerging drought conditions are expected to further aggravate the situation in these areas. The World Food Programme increased its beneficiaries to 1.3 million for the period between April and August 2014 (following the short Rains Assessment), but had to skip distributions due to resource constraints. The WFP has recently issued an alert of a pipeline break by Mid-September and has appealed for allocation of additional resources to avert a food and nutrition crisis. The Kenya Informal Humanitarian Donor Group (annex 2) recommends a scale up of short-term response for the next five months to address the current food security challenges. The KRCS intends to work with the central and county governments as well as humanitarian agencies in undertaking emergency interventions to reverse this situation, and to initiate longer-term measures to deal with malnutrition spikes in the future. The Key areas entail: School Feeding Programmes (SFP) to keep children in school -especially the Early Childhood Development Centres and primary schools not targeted by the World Food Programme/Government of Kenya (WFP/GoK) SFP. These will also address malnutrition cases, rehabilitation of water points in strategic places, livelihood support services, provision of essential health and nutrition activities and cash transfer to households presenting under five-year old children with malnutrition. Where feasible water sources are identified, the Kenya Red Cross Society will also implement food security activities in the hard hit areas in each of the counties. Three years ago, governments and humanitarian community committed to stop drought emergency, and to invest more in early actions and risk management to prevent large-scale crisis. Three years later, gains and investments that have been made are about to fail. There is a very real risk that people still in need will not be reached and those already helped will fall back into crisis. Food Security Situation The performance of the March to May 2014 long rains was generally below average over most parts of the country. As a result of this, crops and forage have not grown at their usual season rates; in the Central Rift Valley of Narok and Kajiado Counties, the south eastern and coastal lowland areas in Kitui, Makueni, and TaitaTaveta Counties and the north western pastoral areas in Turkana, Baringo, Marsabit, and West Pokot Counties. The food security situation has deteriorated since March 2014 in agro-pastoral areas, including Baringo, West Pokot, Laikipia, Narok, and Kajiado Counties. In the south-eastern and coastal marginal agricultural areas, maize is performing poorly at various stages of development. Current crop prices remain up to 50 percent above their respective five-year averages with the household income-earning opportunities becoming less available as agricultural labour decline. In pastoral areas seasonal improvements in grazing conditions were modest with the pasture, browse, and water availability deteriorating more rapidly than usual, especially in Turkana, Marsabit, Wajir, Mandera and Samburu. Household food access and purchasing power in the pastoral areas have been constrained by many factors including declined livestock to maize terms of trade; declined livestock prices and milk production. The FEWSNET report of June 2014 predicts further deterioration of food security outcomes. According to the Food Security and Nutrition working Group July 2014 statement an estimated 20 million people (compared to 15.8 million people in 2013) in Burundi, Central Africa Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda face acute food insecurity with most areas being in Crisis and Emergency phases. The Food Security Outlook April September 2014 in the country is expected to remain Stressed (IPC Phase 2) in the south-eastern marginal agricultural areas and pastoral areas in the Northeast. Food availability and access is expected to decline from June through September 2014 as sources of food and income (casual labour income, income from livestock, and short-cycle crops) dissipate1. The areas of Wajir, Turkana, Marsabit, Mandera and Baringo are projected to deteriorate to IPC 3 as observed in figures 1 and 2 below.

    1 Famine Early Warning Systems Food Security Outlook April September 2014

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    Fig 1: Projected food security outcomes, June 2014 Fig 2: Projected food security outcomes, July to September 2014 (Source: FEWSNET)

    Nutrition Situation SMART surveys were conducted in June/July 2014 (West Pokot, Garissa, Samburu, Turkana, Tana River, Marsabit, Mandera and Wajir) after the long rain season of Mid-March to May, 2014. The results of the surveys indicate an overall significant deterioration of the nutrition situation in Turkana, Baringo (East Pokot), Mandera, Wajir West from the same time last year and to Critical levels in Samburu and Wajir East/South (15-

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    Fig 4: Trend analysis on GAM rates in priority Counties 2010 - 2014

    Rainfall Performance According to the Kenya Meteorological Department , an assessment of the rainfall recorded from 1 March to 28 May 2013 (figure 5 and 6 below), indicates that the rainfall was generally depressed over most parts of the country including several parts of Western Kenya and the Central highlands including Nairobi. Most stations recorded less than 75 percent of their seasonal Long-Term Means for the period of March to May 2014. The worst conditions were observed over North western, Nairobi area and parts of central Rift Valley (Narok) where several meteorological stations recorded less than 50 percent of their long term means. The rainfall distribution, both in time and

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