electron configurations h = 1s 1 1s1s he = 1s 2 1s1s li = 1s 2 2s 1 1s1s 2s2s be = 1s 2 2s 2 1s1s...

Download Electron Configurations H = 1s 1 1s1s He = 1s 2 1s1s Li = 1s 2 2s 1 1s1s 2s2s Be = 1s 2 2s 2 1s1s 2s2s C = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 1s1s 2s2s 2px2px 2py2py 2pz2pz

Post on 24-Dec-2015

227 views

Category:

Documents

5 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Slide 1
  • Slide 2
  • Electron Configurations
  • Slide 3
  • H = 1s 1 1s1s He = 1s 2 1s1s Li = 1s 2 2s 1 1s1s 2s2s Be = 1s 2 2s 2 1s1s 2s2s C = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 1s1s 2s2s 2px2px 2py2py 2pz2pz S = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 1s1s 2s2s 2px2px 2py2py 2pz2pz 3s3s 3px3px 3py3py 3pz3pz THIS SLIDE IS ANIMATED IN FILLING ORDER 2.PPTFILLING ORDER 2.PPT
  • Slide 4
  • H = 1s 1 1s1s He = 1s 2 1s1s Be = 1s 2 2s 2 1s1s 2s2s +1 e-e- +2 e-e- e-e- +4 e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- Coulombic attraction holds valence electrons to atom. Valence electrons are shielded by the kernel electrons. Therefore the valence electrons are not held as tightly in Be than in He.
  • Slide 5
  • Fe = 1s 1 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 6 1s1s 2s2s 2px2px 2py2py 2pz2pz 3s3s 3px3px 3py3py 3pz3pz +26 e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- 4s4s 3d3d 3d3d3d3d 3d3d Iron has ___ electrons. 26 3d3d Arbitrary Energy Scale 18 32 8 8 2 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e-
  • Slide 6
  • Orbital Filling Element 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3s Configuration Orbital Filling Element 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3s Configuration Electron Configurations Electron H He Li C N O F Ne Na 1s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 1s 2 2s 1 1s 2 NOT CORRECT Violates Hunds Rule Electron Configurations Electron H He Li C N O F Ne Na 1s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 1s 2 2s 1 1s 2
  • Slide 7
  • Orbital Filling Element 1s 2s 2p x 2p y 2p z 3s Configuration Electron Configurations Electron H He Li C N O F Ne Na 1s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 1s 2 2s 1 1s 2
  • Slide 8
  • Filling Rules for Electron Orbitals Aufbau Principle: Electrons are added one at a time to the lowest energy orbitals available until all the electrons of the atom have been accounted for. Pauli Exclusion Principle: An orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons. To occupy the same orbital, two electrons must spin in opposite directions. Hunds Rule: Electrons occupy equal-energy orbitals so that a maximum number of unpaired electrons results. *Aufbau is German for building up
  • Slide 9
  • Filling Rules for Electron Orbitals Aufbau Principle: Electrons are added one at a time to the lowest energy orbitals available until all the electrons of the atom have been accounted for. Pauli Exclusion Principle: An orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons. To occupy the same orbital, two electrons must spin in opposite directions. Hunds Rule: Electrons occupy equal-energy orbitals so that a maximum number of unpaired electrons results. *Aufbau is German for building up Arbitrary Energy Scale 18 32 8 8 2 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS North S South N --
  • Slide 10
  • Spin Quantum Number, m s North South The electron behaves as if it were spinning about an axis through its center. This electron spin generates a magnetic field, the direction of which depends on the direction of the spin. Brown, LeMay, Bursten, Chemistry The Central Science, 2000, page 208 -- S N Electron aligned with magnetic field, m s = + Electron aligned against magnetic field, m s = -
  • Slide 11
  • Energy Level Diagram of a Many-Electron Atom Arbitrary Energy Scale 18 32 8 8 2 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS OConnor, Davis, MacNab, McClellan, CHEMISTRY Experiments and Principles 1982, page 177
  • Slide 12
  • IV. Distribution of electrons Aufbau Principle Electrons occupy the positions of the lowest energy Hunds Rule Electrons in the same sublevel occupy empty orbitals rather than pair up Pauli exclusion principle no two electrons in an atom have the same four quantum numbers
  • Slide 13
  • Maximum Number of Electrons In Each Sublevel Maximum Number of Electrons In Each Sublevel Maximum Number SublevelNumber of Orbitals of Electrons s 1 2 p 3 6 d 5 10 f 7 14 LeMay Jr, Beall, Robblee, Brower, Chemistry Connections to Our Changing World, 1996, page 146
  • Slide 14
  • Quantum Numbers n shell l subshell m l orbital m s electron spin 1, 2, 3, 4,... 0, 1, 2,... n - 1 - l... 0... +l + 1 / 2 and - 1 / 2
  • Slide 15
  • Electrons in n = 5 shell What is the maximum shell population of n = 5? n = 5 l = 0(s) l = 1(p) l = 2(d) l = 3(f) m l = 0 m l = 1 m l = 0 m l = -1 A - 50 (2+6+10+14+18) l = 4 has 9 orbitals: it has 18 electrons or 2(5) 2 = 50 l = 4(g) m s = m s = - m s = m s = - m s = m s = - m s = m s = -
  • Slide 16
  • Electron Configuration Filling-Order of Electrons in an Atom
  • Slide 17
  • Order in which subshells are filled with electrons 1s2s3s4s5s6s7s1s2s3s4s5s6s7s 2p3p4p5p6p 2p3p4p5p6p 3d4d5d6d 3d4d5d6d 4f5f 4f5f 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 2 2 6 2 6 2 10 6 2 10
  • Slide 18
  • 4f4f 4d4d 4p4p 4s4s n = 4 3d3d 3p3p 3s3s n = 3 2p2p 2s2s n = 2 1s1s n = 1 Energy Sublevels 2s2s 3s3s 4s4s 5s5s 6s6s 7s7s 1s1s 2p2p 3p3p 4p4p 5p5p 6p6p 3d3d 4d4d 5d5d 6d6d 4f4f 5f5f 1s1s 2s2s 2p2p 3s3s 3p3p 4s4s 4p4p 3d3d 4d4d 5s5s 5p5p 6s6s 7s7s 6p6p 6d6d 4f4f 5f5f 5d5d Energy
  • Slide 19
  • 4f4f 4d4d 4p4p 4s4s n = 4 3d3d 3p3p 3s3s n = 3 2p2p 2s2s n = 2 1s1s n = 1 Energy Sublevels s s s s p p p d df 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10
  • Slide 20
  • Filling Rules for Electron Orbitals Aufbau Principle: Electrons are added one at a time to the lowest energy orbitals available until all the electrons of the atom have been accounted for. Pauli Exclusion Principle: An orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons. To occupy the same orbital, two electrons must spin in opposite directions. Hunds Rule: Electrons occupy equal-energy orbitals so that a maximum number of unpaired electrons results. *Aufbau is German for building up
  • Slide 21
  • Energy Level Diagram of a Many-Electron Atom Arbitrary Energy Scale 18 32 8 8 2 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS OConnor, Davis, MacNab, McClellan, CHEMISTRY Experiments and Principles 1982, page 177
  • Slide 22
  • Electron capacities Copyright 2006 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. Electron capacities
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • Slide 26
  • Slide 27
  • Slide 28
  • Slide 29
  • Copyright 2006 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved.
  • Slide 30
  • Copyright 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. 32 18 8 8 2
  • Slide 31
  • Copyright 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved.
  • Slide 32
  • Energy Level Diagram Arbitrary Energy Scale 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS Bohr Model Electron Configuration CLICK ON ELEMENT TO FILL IN CHARTS N HH He Li C N Al Ar F Fe LaHeLiCNAlArFFeLa
  • Slide 33
  • Energy Level Diagram Arbitrary Energy Scale 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS Bohr Model Electron Configuration CLICK ON ELEMENT TO FILL IN CHARTS N H = 1s 1 Hydrogen H He Li C N Al Ar F Fe LaHeLiCNAlArFFeLa
  • Slide 34
  • Energy Level Diagram Arbitrary Energy Scale 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS Bohr Model Electron Configuration CLICK ON ELEMENT TO FILL IN CHARTS N He = 1s 2 Helium HH He Li C N Al Ar F Fe LaLiCNAlArFFeLa
  • Slide 35
  • Energy Level Diagram Arbitrary Energy Scale 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS Bohr Model Electron Configuration CLICK ON ELEMENT TO FILL IN CHARTS N Li = 1s 2 2s 1 Lithium HH He Li C N Al Ar F Fe LaHeCNAlArFFeLa
  • Slide 36
  • Energy Level Diagram Arbitrary Energy Scale 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS Bohr Model Electron Configuration CLICK ON ELEMENT TO FILL IN CHARTS N C = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 Carbon HH He Li C N Al Ar F Fe LaHeLiNAlArFFeLa
  • Slide 37
  • Energy Level Diagram Arbitrary Energy Scale 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS Electron Configuration CLICK ON ELEMENT TO FILL IN CHARTS N N = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 Bohr Model Nitrogen Hunds Rule maximum number of unpaired orbitals. HH He Li C N Al Ar F Fe LaHeLiCAlArFFeLa
  • Slide 38
  • Energy Level Diagram Arbitrary Energy Scale 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS Bohr Model Electron Configuration CLICK ON ELEMENT TO FILL IN CHARTS N F = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 Fluorine HH He Li C N Al Ar F Fe LaHeLiCNAlArFeLa
  • Slide 39
  • Energy Level Diagram Arbitrary Energy Scale 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS Bohr Model Electron Configuration CLICK ON ELEMENT TO FILL IN CHARTS N Al = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 1 Aluminum HH He Li C N Al Ar F Fe LaHeLiCNArFFeLa
  • Slide 40
  • Energy Level Diagram Arbitrary Energy Scale 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS Electron Configuration CLICK ON ELEMENT TO FILL IN CHARTS N Ar = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 Bohr Model Argon HH He Li C N Al Ar F Fe LaHeLiCNAlFFeLa
  • Slide 41
  • Energy Level Diagram Arbitrary Energy Scale 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 4p 3d 5s 5p 4d 6s 6p 5d 4f NUCLEUS CLICK ON ELEMENT

Recommended

View more >