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  • EFFECT OF WEED CONTROL METHODS ON RICE CULTIVARS UNDER THE

    SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI)

    SHARAD PANDEY

    NOVEMBER 2009

  • EFFECT OF WEED CONTROL METHODS ON RICE CULTIVARS UNDER THE

    SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI)

    SHARAD PANDEY

    THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE

    TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL SCIENCE

    RAMPUR, CHITWAN, NEPAL

    IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE

    DEGREE OF

    MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE (AGRONOMY)

    NOVEMBER 2009

  • CERTIFICATE

    This is to certify that the thesis entitled “EFFECT OF WEED CONTROL

    METHODS ON RICE CULTIVARS UNDER THE SYSTEM OF RICE

    INTENSIFICATION (SRI)” submitted in the partial fulfillment for the Master of Science

    in Agriculture with major in AGRONOMY of Postgraduate Program. Institute of

    Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, is a record of original research carried out by

    Mr. SHARAD PANDEY, Id. No. R-2007-AGR-04-M, under my supervision and no part

    of the thesis has been submitted for any other degree or diploma.

    The assistance and help received during the course of this investigation have been

    acknowledged.

    __________________________ Mr. Narendra Kumar Chaudhary Chairman of the Advisory Committee Date:

  • The thesis attached hereto, entitled “EFFECT OF WEED CONTROL

    METHODS ON RICE CULTIVARS UNDER THE SYSTEM OF RICE

    INTENSIFICATION (SRI)” prepared and submitted by Mr. SHARAD PANDEY, in

    partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Agriculture

    (Agronomy), is here by accepted.

    ________________________ _________________________ Prof. Deo Nath Yadav, Ph.D. Rajendra Uprety Member, Advisory Committee Member, Advisory Committee Date: Date: ________________________ Narendra Kumar Chaudhary Chairman, Advisory Committee Date:

    Accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of

    Science in Agriculture (Agronomy).

    ______________________________ Prof. Resham Bahadur Thapa, Ph.D.

    Assistant Dean (Academic) Postgraduate Program

    Date:

    ____________________________ Prof. Sundar Man Shrestha, Ph.D.

    Dean Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences

    Date:

  • iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    I take this opportunity to gratefully acknowledge the contribution made by various

    persons in the preparation of this thesis manuscript. I wish to acknowledge and express my

    sincere thanks and gratitude to Mr. Narendra Kumar Chaudhary, Chairman of my advisory

    committee and Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agriculture and

    Animal Science (IAAS), Rampur for his guidelines, suggestions, encouragement and

    inspiration throughout the course of this study.

    Similarly, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to the advisory

    committee members Prof. Deo Nath Yadav, Ph.D, Department of Agronomy, IAAS,

    Rampur and Mr. Rajendra Uprety, Senior extension officer, DADO, Okhaldhunga for their

    valuable advices, comments, suggestions and encouragement throughout the planning and

    carrying out of my research and preparation of the manuscript.

    I am deeply indebted to Dr. Shrawan Kumar Sah, Associate Professor and Head,

    Department of Agronomy, IAAS, Rampur, Dr. Komal Bahadur Basnet, Associate

    Professor, Department of Agronomy, IAAS, Rampur and Mr. Lal Prasad Amgain,

    Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, IAAS, Rampur for their help in conducting

    the research and preparing the manuscript.

    I would like to acknowledge and express my sincere gratitude to Prof. Dr. Sundar

    Man Shrestha, Dean, Prof. Dr. Resham Bahadur Thapa, Assistant Dean (Academic) and

    Postgraduate Program Coordinator, Prof. Dr. Shanta Man Shakya, Assistant Dean

    (Examination), IAAS, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal and Prof. Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD,

    Ithaca, NY, USA for providing necessary suggestions to improve the manuscript.

    I am extremely grateful to Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and

    Development (CIIFAD), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, U.S.A and Directorate of

  • iv

    Research and Publications (DOR), IAAS, Rampur campus, Chitwan, Nepal for the

    financial support for this study.

    I would like to express my sincere thanks to senior brothers Deepak, Keshav,

    Mahesh, Navaraj A., Anil, Navaraj B., Kaphil for their continuous support and co-

    operation during the research and thesis preparation.

    I extend my thanks to my friends, Manoj, Kiran, Padma, Dinesh, Debraj, Dhan,

    Pitamber, KHK, Laxman, Anup, Keshab, Santosh and my colleagues Basu, Roshan, Rajan,

    Dharma, Abhises, PR, Amrit, Sarbottam, Salikram, Khem, Krishna, Ganesh, Bhesh,

    Prakash, Yadhav, Sujan and batch mates (2007) and my junior brothers Manoj, Mohan for

    their help and co-operation during the study period.

    Finally, my heartiest thanks to my respected and beloved parents Chandrakant

    Pandey and Kumari Pandey, brothers Sanjay Pandey, Keshab Pandey and sister Krishna

    Pandey for their dedication, love, understanding, endurance, endless patience, moral

    support and regular encouragement which were absolutely necessary to complete my post-

    graduate degree. I also extend my special appreciation to my Mama Ram Hari Aryal,

    Shankar Aryal for their affection, blessings, inspiration and moral support to make this

    study complete.

    Sharad Pandey

  • v

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Content Page

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS v

    LIST OF TABLES xv

    LIST OF FIGURES xviii

    LIST OF APPENDICES xix

    ACRONYMS xxii

    ABSTRACT IN ENGLISH xxiv

    ABSTRACT IN NEPALI xxvi

    1 INTRODUCTION 1

    2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5

    2.1 History and background of system of rice intensification (SRI) 5

    2.2 System of rice intensification (SRI) 5

    2.3 Principles of system of rice intensification (SRI) 6

    2.3.1 Transplanting of single seeding per hill 6

    2.3.2 Transplanting of young (8–12 days old) seedlings 7

    2.3.3 Transplanting of seedlings into a muddy field 7

    2.3.4 Wide spacing of 25×25 cm2 or more depending upon soil fertility 8

    2.3.5 Intermittent irrigation during vegetative growth stage 9

    2.3.6 Addition of organic manure instead of chemical fertilizer 10

    2.3.7 Manual or mechanical weed control without herbicidal use 11

    2.4 The relation of SRI and increase in grain yield of rice 11

  • vi

    2.5 The relation of SRI and extensive root system of rice 12

    2.6 The weed flora in the field of rice 12

    2.7 The effect of weed on yield of rice 13

    2.8 The effect of manual weeding on yield of rice 13

    2.9 The mode of action of sulfonylurea herbicide 14

    2.10 The effect of herbicidal application on yield of rice 15

    2.11 The effect of herbicide followed by one hand weed control on yield of rice 15

    2.12 The effect of mechanical weed control on yield of rice 16

    2.13 The growth of weed under SRI condition 17

    3 MATERIALS AND METHODS 18

    3.1 Description of experimental site 18

    3.1.1 Location 18

    3.1.2 Physico-chemical characteristics of experimental soil 18

    3.1.3 Climatic condition during experimental period 19

    3.2 Experimental details 21

    3.2.1 Field layout 21

    3.2.2 Treatment details 23

    3.3. Description of tested variety 25

    3.3.1 Characteristics of rice variety 25

    3.3.1.1 Ram 25

    3.3.1.2 Sabitri 25

    3.4 Cultivation practices 26

    3.4.1 Layout of field 26

    3.4.2 Raising of seedlings 26

  • vii

    3.4.3 Land preparation 26

    3.4.4 Transplanting and gap filling 26

    3.4.5 Fertilizer management 27

    3.4.6 Weed management 27

    3.4.7 Irrigation management 27

    3.4.8 Insect-pest management 27

    3.4.9 Harvesting and threshing 27

    3.5 Observation noted during experimental period 28

    3.5.1 Observation for growth contributing characteristics of rice 28

    3.5.1.1 Plant height (cm) 28

    3.5.1.2 Number of leaves and number of tiller per plant 28

    2.5.1.3 Leaf area index (LAI) 28

    3.5.1.4 Weed density and weed dry weight 28

    3.5.1.5 Root length and root volume 29

    3.5.2 Growth analysis 29

    3.5.3 Observation for yield contributing characteristics of rice 29

    3.5.3.1 Number of effective tiller per square meter 29

    3.5.3.2 Length and weight of panicle 29

    3.5.3.3 Number and weight of grains per panicle 30

    3.5.3.4 Thousand grain weight (Test weight) 30

    3.5.3.5 Sterility percentage 30

    3.5.4

    Observation for grain yield, straw yield and harvest index of rice

    30

    3.5.4.1 Grain yield and straw yield 30

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