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Economic Liberalization NOT Political Liberalization. Democracy Wall (1978) Movement for increase in civil rights and liberties. Deng Xiaoping shut it down. Tiananmen Square (1989) Initially student protests Spread throughout country Crushed by PLA. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Economic Liberalization NOT Political Liberalization

Economic LiberalizationNOTPolitical LiberalizationDemocracy Wall (1978)Movement for increase in civil rights and liberties.Deng Xiaoping shut it down.Tiananmen Square (1989)Initially student protestsSpread throughout countryCrushed by PLA

Economic LiberalizationNOTPolitical LiberalizationCharter 08 (2008)60th Anniv. Of Universal Declaration of Human Rights.Liu Xiaobo (Nobel Prize Winner) jailed along with others.

Crackdown Continues on Activists in ChinaZhu Yufu, 58-year old poet7 years in prison. Inciting subversion of state power.

Its TimeIts timeIts time, Chinese people!Its time,The square is ours,The feet are ours,Its time to use our feet to go to the square and make a choice.

Local Peoples Congress & Village ElectionsIndependent candidates allowed.Are elections free and fair?CCP must confirm candidates.CCP controls election committee.CCP sets election laws.Problems faced by independent candidates?

China from the Inside: Village ElectionsIf the CCP is not infatuated with democracy, why do they allow elections in the villages?Grassroots democracy is like water. You have to channel it to keep it from flooding.Will successful local elections increase or decrease the demand for larger democratic reform?

Google in ChinaDont Be Evil-- Googles motto

Agreed to self-censorship in order to operate in China.While removing search results is inconsistent with Googles mission, providing no information (or a heavily degraded user experience that amounts to no information) is more inconsistent with our mission.--Google senior policy counsel Andrew McLaughlinGoogle.cnHead of Government Relations fired for giving gifts of iPods to Chinese officials.Google Suggest suggested links the Communist Party found offensive.China hacked Googles system.Gmail accounts of dissidents and activistsGoogle ended now just a referral page to***** Chinese can use Google HK. They can see the possible links, but the Chinese firewalls can still block access to sites.******7Open Net Initiative In ChinaWHAT HAPPENED?CCP Propaganda Official substantially rewrote Southern Weeklys article without knowledge of editors.WHY?Article expressed a dream for constitutional government in China.WIEBO?Government confiscated Southern Weeklys account and posted messages saying the editors approved of the changes.FALLOUT? Large protests and strike by journalists.

Religion in ChinaAtheism (official state position)Majority Buddhism (From India)8-15%ChristianityAbout 2%Islam1-2%Taoism (Native to China)Less than 1%

Various other folk religions

Religion in ChinaTechnically protected by Constitution5 state-sanctioned patriotic religious associations. . . Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism, & ProtestantismStrictly monitored and regulated Catholics cannot profess loyalty to the VaticanReligious can only proselytize in registered placesTibetan Buddhists cannot venerate the Dalai Lama.Other religious groups are outlawed.Questions for The Rise of TaoGive examples of how the Chinese government closely regulates religious life.

Overall, does the Chinese government seem to be cracking down or loosening restrictions on religion?Give examples.Falun GongFounded in 1992Physical and Spiritual Well-Being1999: Demonstration in Tiananmen SquareAttended by 10,000Outlawed as an evil cult.Practitioners were jailed, beaten, and killed in police custody.

Social CleavagesUrban and Rural

URBAN690.8 million51.3%(United States=82%)

RURAL656.6 million48.7%(United States=18%)

Chinas National Bureau of Statistics, April 2011


Geographical CleavageWest & EastEthel Wood. AP Comparative Government and Politics. 4th Edition (Wood Yard Publications, Pennsylvania, 2009.


Hukou SystemSystem of registering people by household & region.Registered by city, town, or villageUsed by Mao to keep poor farmers out of cities.Perpetuates urban-rural divisionRural migrants living in cities cannot receive:Subsidized housing, public education past elementary, public medical insurance, or welfare payments.

Social CleavagesRich and Poor

GINI Coefficient Index:Measures amount of income inequality in a country.0=perfect equality1=total inequality GINI Coefficient IndexNorway.26United Kingdom.36Russia.40United States.41Iran.43Nigeria.44Mexico.46China.47

UN Human Development Report, 2008

GINI Coefficient Index

Measures amount of income inequality in a country.

The End of the Chinese DreamMy father is Li Gang.

Its not simply income equality that bothers people.

Inequality of privilege


Uighurs of XinjiangInner MongoliaTibetBeijingThe People of ChinaHan Chinese91%55 recognized minority groups9%TibetansUighursMongolians

TIBETSince 13th Century: periods of Chinese rule1911-1949: China withdrew1950: Mao reasserted control1959: Dalai Lama fled1965: Tibetan Autonomous RegionPart of ChinaTheoretically has greater self-control2008: series of riotsYear of the Beijing OlympicsChinas Approach to Ethnic MinoritiesUighursMuslims of Turkish descentAutonomous Region of Xinjiang

UighursVictims of discrimination2009 Riots: Protest of the death of 2 factory workers (turned violent)Uighurs targeted Hans. 197 killed.

Chinas Approach to Ethnic MinoritiesMongoliansAutonomous Region of Inner Mongolia2011 protestsMongolian herder run over by Han coal truck driver.

Chinas Approach to Ethnic MinoritiesChinese Governments Approach Towards Ethnic Minorities in Autonomous RegionsCrackdown on religious rights (especially Tibet and Xinjiang)Shutdown access to informationArrests and show of force large security presenceClosed-circuit cameras Large-scale financial investmentEconomic development zones: Han benefitDiscourages traditional way of lifeRelocation of minorities encouraged through govt. subsidized housing Mongolians driven from grasslands; Against traditional cultureFlood regions with ethnic HanIntermarriage with HanHan given preferable jobs and economic opportunitiesEmphasize Chinese not minority culture through education.Exemption from one-child policy (Mongolians)One-Child Policy (1980)1950: 500,000 million1980:Almost 1 billion

Extra Child?Pay a fine (varies; but usually at least=annual income).Punishment for not paying fine.No hukou for child.Loss of job; property destroyedForced abortions/sterilizationsGovernment abductions (some cases)Enforced by Family Planning OfficialsLax enforcement in countryside Mongolians allowed 2

Issues Accompanying One-Child PolicyIssues Accompanying One-Child PolicyPopulation Pyramids

Taiwan1949: Nationalists (KMT) under Chiang Kai-shek fled to islandChina claims sovereignty over TaiwanNo separate seat at UNOne-party state until 1990s.Transitioned into a democracy.

Strong economy: computer technology

TaiwanTensions with China

Efforts at formal independence.U.S. supplies weapons to Taiwan.Chinese missiles pointed at Taiwan.Easing Tensions with China

2009: Leaders exchanged messages.2010: Trade Pact

Hong KongOne Country, Two SystemsFormerly a British colony1997: Special Administrative region of ChinaHigh degree of autonomySeparate currencyHK Constitution: Democratic ProcessBeijing has some veto powerService-based economyCorporate and banking center


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