driving and licensing experiences of learner drivers in queensland:

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Driving and Licensing Experiences of Learner Drivers in Queensland: Comparing pre-and post-July 2007 Presenter: Bridie Scott-Parker (PhD Candidate) Co-Authors Ms Lyndel Bates, Prof Barry Watson, Dr Mark King, Dr Melissa Hyde. Extent of the Problem. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Slide 1

1Driving and Licensing Experiences of Learner Drivers in Queensland: Comparing pre-and post-July 2007

Presenter: Bridie Scott-Parker (PhD Candidate)Co-Authors Ms Lyndel Bates, Prof Barry Watson, Dr Mark King, Dr Melissa HydeGood afternoon everyone and welcome to my presentation. Today I will be talking to you about the driving and licensing experiences of Learner drivers in Queensland.

I would like to acknowledge my co-authors, fellow-PhD candidate Ms Lyndel Bates, and my PhD supervisors Professor Barry Watson, Dr Mark King, and Dr Melissa Hyde.Extent of the ProblemYoung drivers (17-24 yrs), Queensland, 200813% of licensed driver/ rider population20% of persons killed33% of all fatalities arose from crashes involving young drivers/ riders

Ill start with a little background information, particularly for those who are not well-informed in road safety, and in young driver road safety in particular.

Young drivers are at great risk of being killed and injured in car crashes, not only here in Australia but in motorised countries around the world.

In 2008 in Queensland, these drivers comprised 13% of the licensed driver/rider population, one in five persons killed, and nearly one in three fatalities arose from crashes involving young driver/riders.

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3Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL)Novice gains more supervised driving experience under lower-risk driving conditions over an extended durationEnhanced GDL for Learners, Queensland July 2007Minimum age 16 years, minimum duration 1 yearMust record 100 hours supervised practice recorded in logbook, including 10 hours of night drivingFirst 10 hours of professional supervision equates to 30 logbook hoursEnhanced GDL for Provisional period at same time4One of these interventions is graduated driver licensing which first emerged in the 1980s.

GDL is designed to allow novices to gain more supervised driving experience under lower-risk driving conditions over an extended period of time.

In Queensland the GDL program was significantly enhanced in July 2007, and key changes include lowering the licensing age and extending the duration of the Learner period, and the requirement to submit a logbook with 100 hours of supervised driving practice recorded in it.

Changes were also made to the Provisional period, but they are beyond the scope of the research presented today.4Study AimsTo document the experiences of Learners within the current-GDL program (introduced July 2007)

2. To compare some of the experiences of Learners within the current-GDL program with those of Learners within the former-GDL program (pre-July 2007)5There are two aims of this research.

First, we wanted to document the experiences of Learners within the current-GDL.

Second, we wanted to compare some of the experiences of Learners within the current-GDL with those experiences of Learners who progressed through the former-GDL program in Queensland.

It is important at this point to note that novice drivers can be any age, but the findings reported today will only report the experiences of novices aged 17-19 years. This is primarily to ensure independence of observations. Novices who were 19 when they were recruited for the current-GDL research could only have participated in the current-GDL program.

5MethodFormer-GDL ProgramCurrent-GDL ProgramRecruitment 2006, pre-July 2007 Recruited in-person from Brisbane and Townsville Licensing Centres April, May, June 2010 Recruited Queensland-wide with Flyer when progressed from Learner to Provisional Licence

Participants (Provisional licence)(17-19 years)149 Novices 75 females74 males1162 Novices681 females481 males

Design and Procedure(Longitudinal research) 35 minute telephone interview Second telephone interview 1 year later 30 minute online or paper survey Two further 20 minute surveys after 6 and 12 months 6MethodologyThis slide illustrates the sampling methodology used to explore the experiences of Learners within the former and current-GDL programs.

Both sampling methodologies involved recruiting drivers as soon as they progressed from a Learner to a Provisional licence, and both were designed as longitudinal research which started with an exploration of the experiences as Learners.

The novices in the former-GDL program were sampled in 2006 and early 2007. Learners who appeared to have just passed a practical driving assessment at two centres in Brisbane and one in Townsville were approached and asked to participate in the research. They completed a telephone interview within a couple of weeks of their recruitment.

The current-GDL program recruited in April, May and June this year, and novices from across Queensland were recruited with this Flyer by the licensing officer at the time they passed their practical driving assessment. They completed either an online or paper survey.

The novices in the two samples were aged an average of 17.5 years. Whilst there were more females in the current-GDL sample, the proportion was not significantly different.

6Driving Practice7CharacteristicFormer-GDL N = 149Current-GDL N = 1162

Significance LevelDriving practice (Hours) (M, SD)

63.28 (48.00)109.61 (25.36)< .001Driving practice, parents/ friends as supervisor (Hours) (M, SD)

52.83(45.80)89.20(43.85)< .001Driving practice, Instructor as supervisor (Hours) (M, SD)

11.49(15.81)9.71(11.11)= .09Novices were asked to estimate the number of hours driving practice they had as a Learner, and they reported significantly more hours in the current-GDL than those in the former-GDL program. Unsurprisingly the current-GDL novices most commonly reported completing 100 hours of practice

The novices also reported significantly more hours of practice with parents or friends as the supervisor in the current-program.

Driving instructors continued to be pivotal as supervisors in the current-GDL, and the number of hours of supervised driving did not change significantly. Unsurprisingly the most common number of hours was 10, given the novice 30 hours of practice to record in their logbook.

It is noteworthy however that the former program had no minimum driving requirement, and logbooks were only voluntary, so there may have been some recall issues involved in the former-GDL hours of practice. For example, given that novices in the current-GDL HAD to monitor their hours, the number of hours practice may have been more easily and accurately recalled by them.

7Duration and Difficulty8CharacteristicFormer-GDL N = 149

Current-GDL N = 1162Significance LevelDuration of the Learner period (Months) (M, SD)

22.44 (6.76)16.17 (5.67)< .001Difficulty getting supervised practice (Difficult)

35.3%22.4%< .05 Difficult Females Males

50.0%19.8%26.0%17.4%--The novices were also asked how long they had held their Learners, with novices in the current program reporting a significantly shorter duration.

There also may have been some recall issues involved in the former-GDL novices recalling how long they held their Learners. Again, given that novices in the current-GDL HAD to monitor their hours and this appears inextricably linked to the time they had held their Learners, the duration of their Learners may have been more easily and accurately recalled by them. This may also help to explain the discrepancy between the results here and the anecdotal evidence in the media recently that Learners are holding their licence LONGER in the current-GDL program.

The novices in the current-GDL program reported significantly less difficulty obtaining supervised driving practice. This is pleasing, as when the enhanced GDL program was introduced it was suggested that novices could be more likely to experience difficulty getting the mandated hours of practice. Interestingly it appears that the biggest improvement has been for female Learners.

In the former-GDL program, 50% of female novices had difficulty getting supervised practice, but that has halved in the current program. This may be linked to mothers providing supervision, with 40% of female Learners in the old program reporting their mother was the main supervisor, increasing to 58% in the new program.

8Gaining Provisional Licence9CharacteristicFormer-GDL N = 149

Current-GDL N = 1162Significance LevelProvisional licence first attempt (M, SD)

61.5%68.5%= .09Number of attempts to gain Provisional licence (M, SD)

1.47 (.68)1.38 (.72)= .16Provisional licence type (Manual)

72.8%70.7%= .60Novice experiences of gaining a provisional licence was also of interest, and three measures were compared.

As you can see, whilst the proportion of novices gaining their licence on their first attempt was higher for the current-GDL, and the number of attempts needed to gain a provisional licence was less, these were not significant differences.

There was also no significant change in the proportion of novices gaining a manual provisional licence.

9Self-Reported Behaviour10CharacteristicFormer-GDL N = 149

Current-GDL N = 1162Significance LevelOffences detected

4.7%2.6%= .14Crash involvement

6.2%2.5%< .05Unsupervised driving

16.9%11.5%= .06Self-reported behaviour is another indicator of the efficacy of an intervention such as the enhanced current-GDL.

Whilst a smaller proportion of novices reported an offence in the current-GDL, this difference was not significant and may have been due to the small sample size of the former-GDL novices.

Novices reported significantly less crash involvement, and this is pleasing particularly when you consider that they had more exposure to potentially risky driving circumstances as measur

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