private supervisors of learner drivers and queensland’s graduated driver licensing system: how...
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Private Supervisors of Learner Drivers and Queenslands Graduated DriverLicensing System: How Important Are They?
Lyndel BatesProfessor Barry WatsonDr Mark King
AimDocument the experiences of the supervisors of Queensland learner drivers after the changes made to the graduated driver licensing system in mid-2007
Key changesMinimum age reduced from 16.5 to 16 yearsMust obtain 100 hours of supervised practice1 hour of professional instruction equals 3 hours of private supervision (up to 10 hours)
MethodCombination of convenience and snowball228 participantsInternet surveyOpen between July 2009 and May 2010Approximately 15-20 minutes to complete
SupervisorsGender: 46.9% male, 53.1% femaleAge: M = 40.22, sd = 11.66Relationship:Mother: 34.2%Father: 16.7%Stepmother: 3.1%Stepfather: 2.2%Other: 43.9%
Primary supervisorWere you the primary supervisor for this person?Total: Yes 63.2%, No 36.8%Parents: Yes 70.7%, No 29.3%Non parents: Yes 55.4%, No 44.6%Statistically significant:X2(1) = 5.76, p = .02, = .16
No. of learnersHow many learners have you supervised in the past 12 months?Total: M = 1.44, sd = .96Parents: M = 1.47, sd = 1.19Non parents: M = 1.41, sd = .65Not statistically significant: t (226) = .50, p = .62
No. of hoursApproximately, how many hours did you supervise the learner for?Total: M = 79.64, sd = 89.90Parents: M = 68.59, sd = 82.37Non parents: M = 91.08, sd = 96.12Not statistically significant: t (226) = - 1.90, p = .06
Record in logbookWas the practice time recorded in a logbook?
Statistically significant:X2(3) = 12.08, p = .01, = .23
Parent (%)Non parentTotal (%)All practice59 (50.9)34 (30.4)93 (40.8)Most practice44 (37.9)51 (45.5)95 (41.7)Some practice9 (7.8)19 (17.0)28 (12.3)No practice4 (3.4)8 (7.1)12 (5.3)
Accurate logbookHow accurate were the hours in your learners logbook?
Statistically significant:X2(2) = 13.1, p = .001, = .24
Parent (%)Non parent (%)Total (%)Not accurate11 (9.5)19 (17)30 (13.2)Neutral20 (17.2)37 (33)57 (25)Accurate85 (73.3)56 (50)141 (61.8)
Professional instructorDid your learner spend any time with a professional instructor?Total: Yes 82.5%, No 17.5%Parents: Yes 83.6%, No 16.4%Non parents: Yes 81.3%, No 18.8%Not statistically significant:X2(1) = .22, p = .64, = .03
GuidanceDid you receive guidance from anywhere regarding the supervision of learner drivers?Not statistically significant:X2(1) = 1.74, p = .19, = .09
Parent (%)Non parent (%)Total (%)Friends27 (23.3)34 (30.4)61 (26.8)Gov. website15 (12.9)16 (14.3)31 (13.6)Professional driving instructor23 (19.8)25 (22.3)48 (21.1)No advice52 (44.8)60 (53.6)112 (49.1)
Parent (%)Non parent (%)Total (%)Yes64 (55.2)52 (46.4)116 (50.9)No52 (44.8)60 (53.6)112 (49.1)
ConclusionsParents more likely to be primary supervisorPrivate supervisors provide significant amount of supervised practiceSeek to record practice accurately and honestlyMajority of learners have professional lessons as well
Conclusions (2)Supervisors report that majority of learners have professional lessons as wellApproximately of supervisors did not seek adviceSome sought advice from friends, government website or professional driving instructors
Conclusions (3)GDL systems implicitly encourage the involvement of parents and other supervisorsOther non-parental supervisors appear to play a significant roleNeed to more overtly encourage and support private supervisors including non-parents
A key element of graduated driver licensing systems is the level of support provided by parents. In mid-2007 changes were made to Queenslands graduated driver licensing system, including amendments to the learner licence with one of the more significant changes requiring learners to record 100 hours of supervised driving practice in a logbook. Prior to mid-2007, there was no minimum supervision requirement.
This presentation will particularly focus on the experiences of non-parental supervisors
*Some of the key changes to the learner licence in the post-2007 system include:
Designed to broaden the experience obtained.The sample of 228 supervisors of learner drivers was recruited using a combination of convenience and snowball sampling techniques. The internet survey was open for completion between July 2009 and May 2010 and took approximately 15 to 20 minutes for participants to complete
Part of a larger study that included another Australian state (and part of PhD) Just focussing on Qld in this presentation (total of 552 participants overall, 228 from Qld with the remaining 324 from NSW)Relationship: 50.88% parents, 49.12% non-parents The other category included supervising:foster childaunt (nephew and niece)friendyounger siblingswork collegueschild's boyfriend/girlfriendhomestay studentbrother in lawwifecousinflatmate GrandparentsWasnt expecting other category to be so big
**Worth noting that more sources of advice are now available. For instance: the RACQ provides advice to supervisors.While graduated driver licensing systems implicitly encourage the involvement of parents and other private supervisors, these people tend not to be systematically involved. As demonstrated in this study, private supervisors provide a significant amount of supervised practice and seek to record this practice accurately and honestly in the learners logbook. However, even though a significant number of participants reported that this was the first time that they had supervised a learner driver, they accessed little support or guidance for their role. This suggests a need to more overtly encourage and support the role of private supervisors for learner drivers.