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  • Drip irrigation management and water saving in protected culture

    Castilla N.

    in

    Choukr-Allah R. (ed.). Protected cultivation in the Mediterranean region

    Paris : CIHEAM / IAV Hassan IICahiers Options Mditerranennes; n. 31

    1999pages 189-202

    Article available on line / Article disponible en ligne ladresse :

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    http://om.ciheam.org/article.php?IDPDF=CI020843

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    To cite th is article / Pour citer cet article

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    Castilla N. Drip irrigation management and water saving in protected culture. In : Choukr-Allah

    R. (ed.). Protected cultivation in the Mediterranean region . Paris : CIHEAM / IAV Hassan II, 1999. p.

    189-202 (Cahiers Options Mditerranennes; n. 31)

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    http://www.ciheam.org/http://om.ciheam.org/

    http://om.ciheam.org/article.php?IDPDF=CI020843http://www.ciheam.org/http://om.ciheam.org/

  • N. 2027 18080

    Abstract: in its use. reduces cultivation, use of is one of the most An inadequate management of system, fkequently due to drippers clogging and the subsequent of the emission UnXonnity, limits the potential advantages of system. points to achieve a successll management ofthe systems and to save in cultivation, fim a

    of view, is included.

    of to its potential advantages. The high fiequency of

    to only of of

    to

    A that low flow is for salinity

    An will scheduling, that involves to know

    to to known

    low flow that can is, to to

    lype clogging.

    (ET) to about 70% of to

    is not just l i t e d to saving.

    This paper summarizes, from a of management of

    is included.

    v01131 189

    CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes

  • soil soil is to the total soil follows a of soil

    The high to

    of size of takes

    when the is very high and the ability of the soil to is is

    to soil a 1). These aspects have a

    distance (cm)

    Vertical distance

    (cm9

    O

    20

    40

    60

    Eigure l. Water distribution point-source emitters in sandy (up) loam soils (down), at two of water application, A (4 literhour) B (20 literhour). The numbers on the curves rekr to toiakqnantities of water applied. Adapted h m Bressler (1977).

    diffient mathematical models have developed to soil of to know the size and volume of the wetted soil is to

    Cahiers 190

    CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes

  • choice and to soil wetted volume.

    close enough, the wetted soil of

    a is

    to accumulate of

    soil is at the soil an isolated saline zone will develop soil 2) and a deep zone of salt accumulation whose

    location depends on the efficiency of 2). (in salts is turned on in

    to keep the salts away A good with a sufficient fiequency of so is high enough to induce low soluble salt contents.

    17 % LEACHINQ 2% LEACHING

    A

    U

    W

    O

    O. 4

    0.6

    0.0

    1.0

    ct- noVn3

    O 0.2 0.2 n.4

    DISTANCE

    Figure 2. The distribution of salt under a multi-emitter drip system with narrow crop rows after two years and without rainfall. Chloride concentration is the measure of ..

    Adapted from Fereres (1981). salinity.

    A is a to leach the accumulated soil salts 'ifthe in

    used in greenhouses, is to of

    as of close d a s . 1977).

    in the objective of optimizing its that soil

    Cahiers Options vol31 191-

    CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes

  • is in soil to the best yields (Castilla, 1990). As to soil to method of to

    in 1). When to 2)

    to the high used, the applied et al, 1976; Stegman et al,

    of the in (unless as it is

    Evapotmspiration (ET) in greenhouses

    3). on of the the in the ET unheated greenhouse, in 70%

    1990).

    n

    u Transpiration (T)

  • E will

    soil E to is

    soils iiom to

    in in to of to

    use efficiency, to fiom to avoid copious soil

    (ET,,) which is of of 8 to 15

    ET, = . ET, (1) (KC> is

    sowing of of the cycle, the

    al, 1976).

    A as well as (FAO) and as

    et al, al , method. The ease of management of

    is

    in estimated (Castilla, 1989; Castilla et al, al, al, 1990;

    et al, 1980).

    When using the class A pan method:

    ET,=&.E,

    = pan coefficient E, =

    (3)

    (41 show that is 1.0

    1986; Castilla et et 1.

    (Orgaz, values detailed in Table 1, pointing that of

    193

    CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes

  • al, of to those indicated table 1.

    a sub-estimation of ETo, possibly affwted by the type of used in

    A C E F G

    1-15

    16-30

    3 1-45

    46-60

    61-75

    76-90

    91-105

    106-120

    121-135

    136-150

    151-165

    166-180

    181-195

    196-210

    21 1-225

    226-240

    241-255

    TOT ET,

    0.25

    0.50

    0.65

    0.90

    1.10

    1.20

    1.20

    1.10

    1 .o0

    0.95

    0.85

    0.80

    0.80

    0.80

    -

    3.1 8

    0.20

    0.30

    0.40

    0.55

    0.70

    0.90

    1.10

    1.10

    1.00

    0.90

    0.70

    0.60

    0.50

    0.50

    0.60

    0.70

    0.80

    322

    0.25

    0.60

    0.80

    1 .o0

    1.10

    1.10

    0.90

    0.85

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    156

    0.20

    0.30

    0.40

    0.55

    0.70

    0.90

    1 .o0

    1.10

    1.10

    1 .o0

    -

    -

    -

    349-

    0.20

    0.30

    0.40

    0.50

    0.65

    0.80

    1.00

    1 .o0

    0.90

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    299

    0.25

    0.50

    0.70

    0.90

    1 .o0

    1.10

    1.00

    0.90

    -

    -

    -

    -

    -

    _, 1.46

    0.20

    0.35

    0.55

    0.70

    0.90

    1.10

    1 .O5

    0.95

    0.85

    0.80

    0.80

    0.80

    0.80

    0.80

    0.80

    0.60

    0.60

    - " ,393

    The indicated ET, is as no in of et

    al, 1979). The real value of of each case, is designed as actual is

    is of

    194

    CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes

  • @L) as of the

    (IR& l&, in efficiency and to leach salts.

    =

    = to

    (5)

    (6)

    of the soil (0.9 in sandy soils, 1 .O

    Eu is 1) of E, values of 0.85-0.95). This coefficient should be

    al , 1980).

    minimum amount of leaching needed to

    = (7)

    EC,:

    to to

    6.5

    et al, 1980).

    Frequency

    to that will avoid excessive depletion. systems, good management will

    always be based of of the soil to conventional

    to

    ...) have been suggested to detect in is drip

    ( C a d a ,

    . 195

    CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes

  • been suggested as (Idso et al, 19Sl), but it is not easy to use.

    soils, conditions in fix to "Dnflllll the adequacy of the

    at at two depths, a few cm away fiom

    gypsum blocks, need a g ~ d dependiig on the composition of

    Wetting the soil salt l eackg is usefl to 1990-A).

    soilless to

    be a guide to automatic devices have been developed. Some of them based in maintaining a minimum electrodes to a balance to

    is to

    in soilless is very

    and that to

    deficiencies.

    The high in is high efficiemcy 1977). This we

    et al, 1976), d a l to 1977), contem 19771,

    salinity due to

    when is not is a to

    an

    to

    a few cm above the bottom of the in wetting agents to to

    196

    CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes

  • at constant A is

    difficult to achieve.

    is

    soil is held by soil so as N leaching @acon et al, 1982-b).

    soils is mobility of to is applied at

    is to

    moves to a limited extent in

    F e e r Use Efficiency

    system, use as the TpJH4/N03

    an efficient management of

    to conventional adquate is impact due to

    soilless to l i t

    in

    OF

    a A good management must maintain a good emission

    is easy to quanta a l a l 1978).

    decay, due to good of

    the

    salts pesticides)

    vol.31 197

    CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes

  • can to 2 should be adequate, while, in

    and

    The biological clogging can be solved with the injection of a biocide followed by flushing to

    USE

    the is to

    to of to. apply. A the level, can help to

    of to

    ...) to the soil

    to to

    An

    (C02) injecting

    Castilla, 1994).

    is an easy way to to of

    ; is soil (as soil

    as they do not is

    melons (Castilla et al, 1990-C; Castilla et also help to et al, 1989).

    level, too fiquently of be et

    WC> 51 and 93%, the UC being 76%. Only 4% UC. was unacceptable in 20% of them. 50%

    of

    vol.31 198

    CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes

  • as 3.2, to

    unit to name it

    to et al, 1991). The 20

    to 33 in unheated plastichouse (Castilla ET AL, the 65-

    1994).

    soilless of quantaing

    at 2

    plastichouses in in 2), showing the need of applied

    Table 2. Agronomic water use efficiency or water productivity (economic yield, in kg., per of applied water) of various dripirrigated crops, evaluated in commercial unheated greenhouses in Almeria (Spain), in conventional soil and soilless cultures, in the autumn and spring cycle (up) and long season cycle (down)

    Autumn Soil Soilless Soil Soilless

    Short Cycle Coops Squash 41.0

    bean 15.0 27.5

    - cycle Coops Tomato 34.0 peppm 13.5

    - - 18.5 20.5 22.0 43.5 -

    - 22.5 19.5 - 30.5 -

    29.0 ... -

    Eggplant 18.0 - Adapted Carrec+Sanchez et al (1996)

    fiquently

    A to good

    The use of the class A is

    to save

    199

    CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes

  • Ayem, ]B.W. Westocot, 1976. 85 pp.

    Bacon, P. E., of

    Bacon, P.E.,

    Bar-Yosef, B., 1977. of N and 1.

    Bar-Yosef ,B, Sheikholslami, 1976. of in soils fatigated Soil

    Boulard, T., Baille, A., J., 1989. in a 245: 462-469.

    Boulard, T., Baille, A., 1991. Etude de 1 1 : 543-553.

    Bressler, 1977. to Advances in 291343393

    CarremSanchez, J., 1996. Gastos de agua y cosechas obtenidas en los

    Cas- N., 1986, al estudio de los cultivos

    Castilla, ..N.,, 1989. chauffk.

    Castilla, 1990. on the use of ofplastics

    N. F. Bretones, J. : 166-172.

    N., Fereres, 1990-B. The of tomatoes in unheated plastic

    N., Fereres, 19904. Tomato and yield in

    Castilla, N., 1994. management. Acta 361: 44-56.

    vo1.31 200

    CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes

  • N., Gallego, G., 1996. to plastic mulch and

    J., W.0. 1976. Las

    brembos, J., AB 1979. to FAO FAO.

    Fereres 1981.

    nipap, J..?., 1990. The on to 28723-34.

    T.A.., 1990. of

    no. 30. ASA-CSSA-SSSA. USA. 391-434.

    %&o, S.B., Jalason, P.J. Pinter,

    U., B. Bw-Yose& 1980. soils.

    J., P974 Corp. (Calif) 197 pp.

    G d v q J., A. Gallego, F. Bretones, 1990. suela Vm

    ez, A., N. Cas- lm. 85: 57-62.

    J., G 1986. Evaluacin de sistemas de bajo invemd la

    , 1986. in zone: Evaluation of : 199-207.

    elhi, C., 1993. to

    $baghehi, 1994. Tecnologa de m.)

    st ,E., J. J. Stwart, 1980. In: (USA): 763-816.

    Verneken, Jobling., 1980. FAO FAO.

    Cahiers 201

    CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes

  • Veschambre, P.vaYsse. 1980. 204 pp.

    Villele, O., 1984. Les besoins en sous 15 pp.

    vo1.31 202

    CIHEAM - Options Mediterraneennes

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