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ED 259 934

AUTHORTITLE

INSTITUTION

SPONS AGENCY

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DOCUMENT RESUME

Anderson, StePhen P.Wastes to R6sources: Appropriate /Technologies forSewage Treatment and Conversion.National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte,Mont.Department of Energy, Washington, DC. AppropriateTechnology Program.

'REPORT NO POE/CE/15095-2'*PUB DA'T'E Jul 83CONTRACT DE-AC01-82CE15095NOTEAVAILABLE FROM

PUB TYPE

EDRS PRICEDESCRIPTORS

IDENTIFIERS

ABSTRACT

SC 045 905

31p.Superintendent of Documents, U.2/. Government PrintingOffice, Washington, DC 20402.Reportt General (140) Referbnce MaterialsGeneral (130)

MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.Case Studies; Environmental Standards; FederalPrograms; Re'cycl g; *Sanitation; Solid Wastes;*Technological A vancement; Technology; UrbanImprovement; *Waste Disposal; *Wastes; Water Quality; ,11.*Water Treatment*Appropriate Technology; Water Treatment PlantsA

Appropriate technology options for sewage ,managementsystems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use ofappropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental,and economic benefits.. Chapter 1 presents background information onsewage treatment in theeUnited States and the key issues 'acingmunicipal sewage managers. Chapter 2 outlines conventional sewagetreatment systems and introduces alternative and innovativetechnologies. Chapter' 3 presents case studies of the experiences offive municipal systems, including the technologies involved, costs,

-project problems and subsequent solutions, and current status. Theseprojects (funded by the Department of Energy's Appropriate TechnologySmall Grants Program) focused on verMicomposting, apaerobicprimarytreatment, digeSter gas recovery and use, electricity from effluentoutfall, and an energy audit/conservation plan. Chapter 4 reviewssome of the lessons learned and examines future possibiliities. Eachchapter includes a. glossary, and abbreviations list,references/sources, and a list of agencies or individuals able toprovide further assistance. A list of selected sewage treatmentprojects from the Department of Energy Appropriate Technology SmallGrants Program is included in an appendix. (ML)

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WASTES TO RESOURCESCT July 1983u-Ntsj(---vo APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGIES F9RIjj S EWAGE TREATMENT AND CONVERSION

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- WASTES TO RESOURCES:APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGIES FOR

TREATMENT AND CONVERSION

Prop:trod fors I.U.S. Department of EnergyAssistant Secretary, Conservation and Renewable EnergySmall Scale Technology BranchAppropriate Technology ProgramUnder Contract No. DE-AC01-82CE15095

July 1983

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P.O. kw 3838 80118, Montano 59702

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ONTENTSIntroduction JP`

Chapter 1:Se Wage Cdllection and Treatment.: The Major losuesHealth and PollutionWater and Soil ContaminationLaws 'and Regulations

rpnancing

Chapter 2;Sefage Management, Treatment, Conversion, lJse, and DisposalTreatment Systems

Conventional Centralized PlantsLagoons',AquacultureLand Treatment

Management and Use of SludgeSystem-wide Management Strategies

Decentralized Systems

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Chapter 3:Case Studies: Appropriate Technology at WorkEnergy Audit and Conservation PlanDigester Gas Recovery and UseProducing Electricity From Effluent OutfallAn Innovative Anaerobic Primary Treatment SystemVermicomposting: WormsUsed To Proctss Sludge

Chapter 4:Lessons Learned and Future Directions

Appendix A:Selected Sewage Treatment Projects Irom the DORppropriateTechnology Small Grants Program

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While It is Impossible to mention every individual who has helped in the development of this document, the followingindividuals and organizations are recognized for their special contributions: Stephen P. Anddrson, author; StephenG. Thomas and Diane,Smith, editors; Hans Haumberger, technical illustrator; Tom Cook, graphic designer; andthestaff of the National Center for Appropriate Technology; Ray Dinges, Texas Health Department, Austin, TX; WilliamStewart, Biological Engineer, Encinitas, CA; Stan S ith, EPA, Denver, CO; the DOE Appropriate Technologygrantees and their staffs. In addition, the cooperatio and information offered by the following U.S. Government

Is greatly appreciated: EPAthe Municip nvironmental Resource Laboratory (Cincinnati, OH), theOffice of Water Pollution_Operations ( Washington), and the FIT-Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (Ada,OK); NASAthe Nationpl4pace Technology Laboratory (Ray St. Louis, MS); and the Department of interiortheOffice of Water Researbh and chnology (Washington)."TNe report wee psrepated as an AAA sponsored by en atom of the Untied Stelae Government. NOther the United States Govern.meat nee any army thereof, or any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or Implied, or 1911.11fRIM ant lopef Itabatty or meson.& INV fer die WipWOO'f,-0011106001111, Of seseminese ef 'any Information, apparatus, product, or process diseteeed, or represents that Its usemold net Infringe privately owned IM.. fleferenew herein fe any spindle oommeistal 'rafted, pram% or rowdy* by trade nem% trademark,e tansfeetwrer, or elherwiee, dose not neeeseadly Oftelltilie Of Imply Its , resernmetidetten,'or favoring by the UMW SlatesGOVIIIMINIt el any *patsy Memel. Ms slows and Odom of outliers do nel mitreeserfly state a reflect thorn of the UnitedStates Oftiornment er any army thereof."

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Managers of municipal sewage systemsacross the country are confronted with aseemingly contradictory set of challenges.How can they reduce pollution and yetoperate within their shrinking city budgets?How can they conserve energy and yeteffectively process a growlicg volume ofsewage?

Appropriate technologies have shownthat they can provide some of the answersand at the same time help sewage plant'managers operate systems more efficientlyand with less threat to the environment andhuman.health. And there are other benefitsas well. For example, the problem of reduc-ing pollution does not have to be expensive.On the contrary, by using appropplatetechnologies, money can be saved in thelong run by conserving resources throughrecycling wastes. ^

More than two dozen projects concernedwith wastewater treatment, conversion, oruse were funded by the U.S..Department ofEnergy's Appropriate Technology SmallGrants Program. These projects wereawarded to individuals and .groups as di=verse as fiomeowners, farmers, and theworld's largest wastewater treatment plantin Chicago. But all the grantees shared acommon concern: that it is simply too ex-pensive, both at the broadest ecologicallevel and at the increasingly critical eco-nomic level, to continue wasting materialsthat are, in fact, resources.

They also shared a common goal of re-ducing sewage treatment costs. Many citiessaved money by implementing appropriate.technologies that improve, upgrade, orexpandoexisting systems. Others in thefield tested basic new ideas, constructedbench-scale systems, or used appropriatetechnologies in innovative ways at lull-scale. As . the various technologies weretested and implemented, two main lessonsbecame dear: significant amounts of theenergy and water resource* going intosewage collection and treatment can beconserved, and wastes can be convertedoresources, Both conservation and Waconversion can save the taxpayers' money,and at the same time can often reducepollution.

Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Tech-nologies for Sowctip Treatment and Con-version is intended to introduce sewage

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system managers, municipal administrators,and interested professionals and citizens toa general background of appropriate tech-,nology options for sewage management.Many of these technologies have shownthat they work on existing, traditional sew-age systems; others may hold promise forthe future.

Chapter One presents background infor-mation on sewage treatment in the UnitedStates and the key issues facing municipalsewage managers, Chaptei Two outlinesconventional iiewagg treatment systemsand introduces alternative and innovativetechnologies.

The case studies in diapter Three pre-sent the experiences of five municipal sys-tems: the technologies invo