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Unit 4 HBS Test Review Guide: 10 points Extra Credit on Summative Assessment—Due Wed (4.6.16)
4.1: Joints and Motion
1. What are the four structures of the skeletal system?
2. Name all the bones on the figure to the right. Which
skeleton and type of bone is each of the following?
3. What are the five functions of the skeletal system?
4. What is osteoporosis? Osteoarthritis? Osteogenesis imperfecta?
5. Where do you find immovable, semi-movable, and movable joints in the body? Where do you find each type of movable joint? What type of movement is possible at each joint?
6. Complete the following chart describing the anatomy of the muscular system.
Type of muscle
Location in Body
Description of Contraction
Example of Function in the Body
7. Name all the skeletal muscles in the figure.
8. Which muscles do bicep curls exercise? squats?
9. How does skeletal muscle contraction occur?
You must describe the sliding filament theory
(motor neuron, acetylcholine, actin, myosin,
troponin, Ca+2, tropomyosin, sarcomere, SR).
10. Why does rigor mortis occur? Why is rigor mortis temporary?
11. Which disorders do Jason and Ami have? What is the pathoanatomy and pathophysiology of each?
4.3: Blood Flow
12. What is the physiology of the cardiovascular system?
13. How are veins and arteries similar? Different?
14. Fill in the heart box model below showing where blood flows through the heart and body. On the diagram indicate where blood is oxygen-rich (oxygenated) and where the blood is oxygen-poor (deoxygenated).
Body, Lungs, LA, RA, LV, RV, Tricuspid valve, Pulmonary valve, Aortic valve, Mitral valve, Superior vena cava,
Inferior vena cava, Arteries,
Veins, Capillaries (2), Pulmonary artery,
Pulmonary vein, Aorta
a. What color are your arteries?
b. What color are your veins?
c. What color are your capillaries?
15. Label structures A-K.
16. What is the path of electrical signaling during a heart contraction?
17. What is the physiology of the pulmonary arteries and veins,
coronary arteries, and cardiac veins?
18. What are varicose veins? How do they form? How can they
be prevented? How are they treated?
19. What is cardiac output? What is the equation? How can it be calculated? How can it be affected?
20. What is peripheral artery disease? How can it be diagnosed? How can it be treated?
21. What is a normal blood pressure? How is blood pressure affected by other organ systems?
4.4: Energy and Motion
22. What is the equation for cellular respiration? What are the reactants? What are the products?
23. Complete the following chart describing the three energy systems.
Aerobic or Anaerobic
When do you use it?
Result of the Process
24. How do performance enhancers improve athletic fitness? What are some risks?
25. What is muscle fatigue? Why does muscle fatigue occur?
26. Label the diagram. When does a total hip replacement occur? How is it performed?