creating social europe ii foundations of state welfare in nineteenth century europe

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Creating Social Europe II Foundations of state welfare in nineteenth century Europe Slide 2 Industrialisation: UK, Germany France Slow in UK: fast in Germany, partial in France (north-east) More reliance on wage labour Growth of voluntary / compulsory collective protection Mutual aid (France) Insurance principle (Germany and UK) Some agencies more acceptable than others (trade unions) Slide 3 Helping the poor German and British poor laws: late C19 th German: from paternalism to scientific rationalism: educate the poor: Elberfeld system (investigation). UK: New Poor Law: foster self sufficiency via punishment: workhouse test + no out relief. Both supplement with charity (some religious) France: no national system: charitable relief Social Catholicism: RC paternalism (employers) Republican Solidarism: repayment of social debt. Slide 4 German Hilfenkassen Derived from guild-based, journeymens provident funds 1845 Prussia introduces compulsion All workers in trade must join State supervision and model rules Duty of relief falls first on corporation, second on poor law 1849 legislation for factory workers (textile, iron and steel) Communes empowered to set up compulsory provident funds Supplemented by local provident funds Slide 5 German Hilfenkassen II 1850s provident funds expand 1860s SPD and liberal trade unions create mutual benefit funds [1866 North German confederation founded: introduction of Reichstag] 1876 Trade union funds must match payments of provident funds Sickness and death only (no strike pay) Slide 6 France: mutuelles v. syndicats [1791 Le Chapelier law passed] 1852 Napoleon III legalises mutuelles Rules centrally registered, voluntary membership Run by local notables Funded by contributions, legacies and gifts Casework (family) based Wide range of help available Despised by trade unionists (anti-welfare) Slide 7 France mutuality: reform 1872 birth of Third Republic 1884 trade unions legalised 1898 mutuelles reformed (anti-RC Church) Councils are elected Self-governing and autonomous Rejection of insurance principle in favour of social solidarity (solidarit) Rejection of central control (community- based mutuality) Slide 8 Slide 9 Slide 10 Slide 11 Slide 12 Slide 13 UK: friendly societies and trade unions Friendly societies Date back to late 18 th century Voluntary, democratic, selective, contribution- funded and autonomous Initially religious and local, by late 19 th century, dominated by large national orders. Friendly Society Acts register rules Close association with trade unions Based on insurance principles (actuarial) Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17 Conclusions: the ambiguous position of trades unions Most unionists are skilled workers France: revolutionary syndicalism has no truck with capitalism (or mutuality) UK: trade unions start as friendly societies Friendly Society of Ironfounders (1834) Amalgamated Society of Engineers (1852) Sick, unemployment, invalidity & strike pay German trade unions (liberal and SPD) use of social benefits to build a power base Slide 18 Conclusions II: the insurance syndrome France: reform of mutuality = rejection of absolutism (Napoleon III & Prussian precedent) and insurance principle. UK: liberal independence of working class movement increases interest in insurance Germany: the first experiments in compulsory insurance Slide 19 Conclusions III: the shift to a social policy In all three states, evidence of state interest in fostering collective mutuality In all three states, this requires modifying established practices To distinguish acceptable forms of mutual aid To discourage / outlaw strike action (German anti-trade union legislation in early 1880s) Mutual aid forms the roots for state welfare

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