government and industrialisation in late nineteenth century europe creating social europe week 2

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  • Government and Industrialisation in late Nineteenth century EuropeCreating Social Europe week 2

  • Structure of lectureIndustrialisation in EuropeIntroducing states in nineteenth century Europe: Germany, France and BritainWhat type of government?What perspectives on social policy?Industrialisation and the working class

  • Industrial & Urban Europe c. 1850

  • What industry?In chronological orderTextilesCoal mining / metal working Railways and steam enginesChemicals and electrical engineeringCities: Administrative centresCommercial centresManufacturing centres

  • Industrialisation: UK, Germany FranceEarly but slow in UK: fast in Germany, partial in France (north-east)More reliance on wage labourCo-existence artisanal and factory productionUrbanisation: growth of voluntary / compulsory collective protection (next week) Mutual aid (France)Insurance principle (Germany and UK)Some agencies more acceptable than others (benevolent societies: trade unions)

  • Consolidation through negotiation and conquest Prussian domination consolidatedZollverein negotiated 1830s.Wars with Denmark, Austria and FranceFormation of North German Confederation (1866)Creation of Kaiserreich (German Empire) following French defeat 1871.King of Prussia becomes German Emperor (Kaiser)Rules through appointed ChancellorWith an elected ReichstagProperty-based voting qualification = Reichstag domination by Junkers (landowners)

  • Germany in the late 19th centuryEmpire, governance and industrialisation: the Prussian traditionKaiser absolutism and Junker dominanceWeakness of Reichstag (low tax capacity)Weakness of liberal laissez-faire capitalismLocal autonomy in governance of local affairsRapid, successful industrialisationState (Junker)-sponsored: protectionistRailways & armaments (German unification)Stress on heavy industry on Ruhr, in SaxonyLocal poor laws cannot cope

  • Ruling Imperial Germany

  • France: the revolutionary traditionIn 100 years after 1789 French Revolution2 monarchies3 republics2 empires1848 revolutions in Europe:France: ejection of monarchyEstablishment of 2nd RepublicLasted 18 months: Napoleon III seizes power

  • From revolutionary republic to imperial dynasty (1848-1850)

  • And back again (1871 and after)

  • Franco-Prussian War (1871-2)German attack to annex Alsace LorraineFrench defeat: Napoleon III surrendersParis Commune eruptsGerman army waits outside ParisProvisional government sends army from Toulouse to put down CommuneFrench army butchers c.20,000 Parisian revolutionariesThird Republic declared.

  • The unstable French constitution3rd Republic born facing opposition fromTwo monarchist factions (Orleans + Bourbon)(And therefore the Catholic church)Bonapartists (Napoleon III + family in UK)Revolutionary socialist remnantsRecall the very short history of French Republics I and IIHere, social policy required to legitimate new regime

  • The Third Republic: the successful compromiseCentralisation associated with Napoleon III Republican principle dictatesRestoration of powers to departements / communesThe extension of the franchise to all adult malesRecognition of freely elected mutuelles and trade union rights (1791 Le Chapelier law had outlawed both)

  • UK: the stable regimeParliamentary democracy secure (Crown in Parliament)Extension of franchise to householders (1867 and 1884) adult males onlySlow industrialisation creates liberal (not socialist) working class movement.Little sign of real revolutionary intent. Welfare crisis is in part crisis of poor law finance (and part threat of imperial decline)

  • The heritage of industrialism: the organised working class in EuropeImperial Germany: the rise of the SPD and free trade unionism (1860s &1870s)France: the Paris Commune and after the revolutionary syndicalist traditionThe creation of the Second International (uniting workers of the world in opposition to capitalism)The renewed threat of revolution in Europe

  • Revolutionary Communists (two failures and one success)

  • Conclusions: the environment for new social policy initiativesUrbanisation: the collapse of established systems of social protection (German and UK poor laws)Legitimating new regimesGermany: gaining local acceptance of ReichFrance: establishing a secular RepublicRise of organised labourIncluding revolutionary elements