CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. The conflict process Sources of conflict Manifestconflict Conflictoutcomes Conflict perceptions Conflict emotions
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The conflict processSources ofconflict
DEVELOP A POWERFUL :Team Mission StatementClearI can see it and I can say itCommonI believe it and share itCompellingI am motivated to achieve itConciseI know when we have achieved success
Types of conflictTask-related conflict (Conflict is not always bad )conflict is aimed at issue, not partieshelps recognise problems, identify solutions and understand the issuesSocioemotional conflictconflict viewed as a personal attackfoundation of conflict escalationleads to dissatisfaction, stress and turnover Process Conflict- Conflict over how work gets done Relationship Conflict- Conflict based on interpersonal relationships
We see things:not as they arebut as we are
RESOLVING CONFLICT THROUGH NEGOTIATIONNegotiationstrying to resolve differences by redefining terms of interdependence.Everyone negotiates every day
The Negotiation Process
Basic Types of NegotiationDistributive negotiationsInvolve winlose, fixed-amount situations wherein one partys gain is another partys lossIntegrative negotiationsInvolve joint problem solving to achieve results benefiting both parties
Basic Types of NegotiationAttitudinal structuringThe process by which conflicting parties seek to establish desired attitudes and relationships Intraorganizational negotiationsInvolve sets of negotiators representing different groups, and each set of negotiators tries to build consensus for agreement to resolve intra-group conflict before dealing with the other groups negotiators
Matrix of Negotiated OutcomesOutcome:Great for Person ATerrible for Person BOutcome:Mediocre for Person AMediocre for Person BOutcome:Good for Person AGood for Person BOutcome:Terrible for Person AGreat for Person BIntegrativeDistributiveIntegrativeDistributiveSTRATEGY OF PERSON BSTRATEGY OF PERSON A
Third-partyconflict resolutionobjectivesEfficiencyEffectivenessProceduralfairnessOutcomefairnessThird-party objectives
Types of third-party interventionMediationArbitrationInquisitionLevel ofprocess controlLevel of outcome controlHighHighLow
What is Persuasion?The art of persuasion is the art of finding the best available means of moving a specific audience in a specific situation to a specific decision
Persuasion: The MessageRepeated Exposure: Repeated exposure to people and things (such as politicians and classical music) enhances their appeal.Emotional Appeal: Attempts to influence behavior on the basis of feelings that are aroused instead of rational analysis of the issues.Counter-arguments:: People tend to believe arguments that run counter to the vested interests of the communicator.
The Persuasion TriangleSubject(Logos)(Logic)Presenter(Ethos)(personal credibility)Audience(Pathos)(emotions)
Persuasion in the Real WorldPresenter SubjectAudienceYour Needs & InterestsTheir Needs & InterestsYour Programs Needs & Accomplishments
Logos (logic)Support your reasons with proof. Facts - can be proven. Expert opinions or quotations Definitions - statement of meaning of word or phrase Statistics - offer scientific support Examples - powerful illustrations Anecdote - incident, often based on writer's personal experiences Present opposition - and give reasons and evidence to prove the opposition wrong
Faulty LogicCausal : making a connection b/c one event follows another.Bandwagon: suggesting that b/c everyone believes something or does something, it must be valid, accurate, or effective. EX: Everybody knows that taxes are too high.Either-or: oversimplifying an issue as offering only 2 choices.Hasty Generalization: reaching a conclusion w/o adequate supporting evidence.Personal Attack: name-callingRed Herring: irrelevant facts or information used to distract from the issue. Appeal to Misplaced Authority: using someone w/o the appropriate credentials or expertise to endorse an idea or producNon Sequitur: an idea or logic that doesnt follow the previous idea or conclusion.
Ethos (personal credibility)convince your audience that you are fair, honest, and well informed. They will then trust your values and intentions. Citing your sources will help this area.Honesty:Competency: Meaning capable of getting the job done.Energy: Through non verbals like eye contact and gestures, and a strong voice, a speaker will come across as charismatic. How can you gain credibility?Dress up to show youre seriousBe prepared and organizedDo your research and use it in your speechEye contactRelate to your audience (in your speech)
Pathos (emotions)a carefully reasoned argument will be strengthened by an emotional appeal, especially love, anger, disgust, fear, compassion, and patriotism.*feeling the speechEX: If you loved me you would do this.EX: Persuading lower gas prices might want some anger in the current prices or the frustration in nothing being done about it.EX: Ads that try to get you to sponsor a child.
Analyze your audienceSupportive audience:Uncommitted audience: neutral Indifferent audience: have to get them to pay attention and Convince them Opposed audience: against you before you start
MeltMoldHarden & Ignite!Persuading is like making a candle
Melting ResistanceTo Melt ResistanceBe honestFind common groundUse humor carefullyAppreciate what they are already doingGive realistic pros and consAsk them to make your caseTry to melt resistance before meetings
Know your AudienceKnow what moves your AudiencePresent ProfessionallyPresent PersonallyMake your argument clear
In Closing, IGNITE!People may feel for you and agree with you, but if they do not act on your behalf, your presentation fails its purpose
Harden & Ignite!:Believe in your causeTo ignite others to support your cause, first YOU should be on fireWhy should others care if you do not?You show your convictions by yourPassionate presentationConfident presentationPositive presentation
InfluenceInfluenceUsing power to change another person in a desired direction.The area of social psychology that studies the ways in which people influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of other behavior.Dynamic interdependence view of influencePower is viewed as an aspect of a relationship. Power should vary according to expertise, knowledge, and importance in goal attainment.Influence is a function of the characteristics of:The person exerting the influenceThe person receiving the influenceThe influence attempt
ASSERTIVENESSAssertiveness is the ability to communicate your needs, feelings, opinions, and beliefs in an open and honest manner without violating the rights of othersIS NOT THE SAME AS AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR.AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR ENHANCES SELF AT THE EXPENSE OF OTHERS.ASSERTIVENESS PRODUCES POSITIVE OUTCOMES FOR ALL; AGGRESSIVE ACTS RESULT IN NEGATIVE OUTCOMES.
WHAT WILL IT DOHELPS YOU BECOME SELF-CONFIDENTINCREASES SELF-ESTEEMGAIN RESPECT OF OTHERSIMPROVE COMMUNICATION SKILLSIMPROVE DECISION-MAKING ABILITY
HOW TO BE ASSERTIVEBE HONEST AND DIRECT ABOUT YOUR FEELINGS, NEEDS, BELIEFS.EXPRESS YOURSELF FIRMLY AND DIRECTLY TO SPECIFIC INDIVIDUALS.BE REASONABLE IN YOUR REQUESTSSTATE YOUR VIEWPOINT WITHOUT BEING HESITANT OR APOLOGETIC.BE HONEST WHEN GIVING OR RECEIVING FEEDBACK.LEARN TO SAY NO TO UNREASONABLE EXPECTATIONS.PARAPHRASE WHAT OTHERS HAVE STATED TO YOU.
HOW TO BE ASSERTIVEREGOGNIZE AND RESPECT THE RIGHTS OF THOSE AROUND YOU.USE APPROPRIATE TONE OF VOICE.BE AWARE OF BODY POSTURE/LANGUAGEMAINTAIN EYE CONTACT.USE I STATEMENTS TO EXPRESS SELFDONT LET OTHERS IMPOSE THEIR VALUES/IDEAS ON YOUENCOURAGE OTHERS TO BE CLEAR AND DIRECTAcknowledgement, Validation, Gratitude
TYPES OF ASSERTIVENESSNon-assertive behaviour I am not ok,you are ok Assertive behaviour I am ok,you are ok Aggresive behaviour I am ok,you are not ok Manipulative behaviour I am not ok,you are not ok