Cinchona Bark Experiment-4

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Pharmacognosy of cinchona bark

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<p>Experiment No. 4</p> <p>Pharmacognosy</p> <p>Experiment No. 41.0 2.0 TITLE :To study Morphological and Microscopical characteristics of Cinchona Bark.</p> <p>PRIOR CONCEPTS :Section cutting technique, staining, mounting and observation of transverse section of Cinchona Bark.</p> <p>3.0</p> <p>NEW CONCEPT :Proposition 1 : Morphological characters It includes organoleptic characters and extra features. Proposition 2 : Microscopical characters It includes observation of important tissue components of transverse section of Cinnamon bark. Proposition 3 : Adulterants It is debasement of genuine crude drugs, which proved harmful.</p> <p>4.0</p> <p>LEARNING OBJECTIVE :Intellectual Skill : 1. 1. 2. 3. Ability to interpret the tissue components. Ability to prepare thin transverse section of cinnamon bark. To handle and observe instrument and crude drug correctly. Labeling different component of cell. Motor Skill :</p> <p>5.0</p> <p>REQUIREMENT SSSS :Apparatus : Microscope, watch glass, camel hair brush, glass slides, cover slips, beaker, dropper, filter paper, forceps, test tubes, test tube holder, tripod stand, wire gauze, dissecting needle, sharp razor, etc. Chemicals : Phloroglucinol, Conc. HCI, Iodine solution, Glycerin, etc. Crude Drug : Cinchona bark.</p> <p>6.0</p> <p>DIAGRAM :</p> <p>Fig. 4.1 Cinchona Bark and Plant</p> <p>18</p> <p>MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION</p> <p>Pharmacognosy</p> <p>Experiment No. 4</p> <p>Fig. 4.2 T.S. of Cinchona Bark (Refer colour diagrams given in Appendix-V)</p> <p>7.0</p> <p>STEPWISE PROCEDURE :7.1 7.2 Synonyms : English : Jesuit's bark, Peruvian bark. Biological source : It consists of dried bark of the cultivated trees of Cinchona calisaya Wedd., C. ledgeriana. Mocns, C. officinalis Linn., C. succirubra Pav. ex. Klotzsch, or hybrids of either of the last two species with either of the first two. It contains not less than 6 percent of total alkaloids of cinchona. Family : Rubiaceae. Macroscopy : Organoleptic characters : Odour : Slight and Characteristic Taste : Intensely bitter and slightly astringent. Microscopy : 1. PERIDERM : Cork : Several layers of thin walled, flat, polygonal cells with reddish brown content, impregnated with suberin. Phellogen : 2to 3 layers thin walled cells without any cellular content. Pheloderm : 6 to 8 layers of thin walled rectangular cells without any cellular content.</p> <p>7.3</p> <p>7.4</p> <p>MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION</p> <p>19</p> <p>Experiment No. 4</p> <p>Pharmacognosy</p> <p>2. CORTEX : Several layers of thin walled tangentially elongated cells containing reddish brown matter. Calcium oxalate crystals : 2 to 6 m long, microsphenoidal crystals Starch grains : Rounded, 6 to 10 m in diameter. Sclereides are absent. Cavities (secretion canals) are present. 3. SECONDARY PHLOEM : Sieve Tubes : The compact cells being about 200 m long and 15 to 20 m wide and having narrow companion cells; most of the sieve tubes are compressed and collapsed. Fibres : Nemerous, large, fusiform, lignified phloem fibres, having striated walls and conspicuous tubular or funnel-shaped pits, mostly isolated, some times in groups of 2 to 3 fibres. Pholem parenchyma : Thin, dark-reddish brown walls, some with micro-prisms of calcium oxalate. Medullary rays : One to three seriate, extended up to cortex cells, redially elongated and contain starch grains. Chemical constituents : Alkaloids : Quinine, Quinidine, Cinchonine, Chichonidine Uses : 1. Antimalarial 2. Antipyretic. Allied drugs : 1. Cuprea bark, 2. Colombian bark. Marketed preparations : 1. Cinchona extract, 2. Compound cinchona tincture. Procedure 1. Clean the platform and issue the apparatus. 2. Issue the sample of crude drug. 3. Preparation of sample for sectioning. Boiling of the sample. Section cutting. Transfer the section in to Watch glass containing water. (If crude drug is too hard, or in any case where subject teacher may feel then the preparation of sample for sectioning is done before one hour or a day of the practical or may be varied in certain cases) 4. Staining Process. Take a clean watch glass and add the staining solution to it. With the help of brush, transfer the section taken from watch glass containing water to stain solution and keep it for 2 - 3 minutes. Transfer it to watch glass containing plane water, so that excess stain is washed away. This section is ready for mounting. 5. Mounting Process. Transfer the section to be mounted on the glass slide with the help of brush. Add 1 - 2 drops of water on the section with the dropper. Place the clean cover slip over the section with the help of a forceps and needle. With the help of blotting paper, wipe out excess of water present outside the cover slip. The slide is ready for observation. 6. Observation. Select a place in the laboratory for microscope, where sufficient light is available. Set the microscope in such a way that the C-Arm towards to you and the objective and mirror facing the light. Open the diaphragm completely with the help of the sub stage mirror. Adjust the position so that the field of view is sufficiently illuminated. Place the slide prepared on the stage of the microscope at the centre, with the section placed exactly in line with the stage window lying above the condenser.I I I I I I I I I I I I I</p> <p>7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9</p> <p>20</p> <p>MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION</p> <p>Pharmacognosy</p> <p>Experiment No. 4</p> <p>I</p> <p>I</p> <p>Fix the slide between the clips. Now the slide can be moved forward, backward or sideways above the stage with the help of two screws provided on the mechanical stage. Take observations. Staining :</p> <p>7.10</p> <p>1. T.S. + Phloroglucinol + Conc. HCI (1:1) Pink colour. Lignified Phloem fibres Fig. 4.3 2. T.S. + Iodine Blue colour. Starch.</p> <p>Fig. 4.4 (Refer colour diagrams given in Appendix-V)</p> <p>8.0</p> <p>OBSERVATIONS :8.1 Observation table for Macroscopy : Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. Test Colour Odour Taste Observation</p> <p>8.2 Observation table for Staining : Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. Test Observation Inferences</p> <p>9.0</p> <p>CONCLUSION :The given sample of crude drug is found to be . (Cinchona bark)</p> <p>10.0 QUESTIONS :Write answers to Q.Q.Q.Q.Q. (Questions to be allotted by the subject teacher. Subject teacher shall also add few more relevant questions) 1. Write two external characters of Cinchona. 2. Differentiate between stem, root and bark of Cinchona with the help of external characters. 3. The name 'Cinchona' is derived from which incident? 4. Which staining test is used to detect starch? 5. What will be the inferences after treatment of T.S. of Cinchona with Dil. Hydrochloric acid? 6. Which microscopic component is present in periderm of Cinchona bark?</p> <p>MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION</p> <p>21</p> <p>Experiment No. 4</p> <p>Pharmacognosy</p> <p>7. 8. 9. 10.</p> <p>Draw well labeled diagram of Cinchona bark. Which microscopical test is used for identification of Lignified phloem and fibres? Mention four species of Cinchona bark. Which parasites are responsible for infection of Malaria? Give two names. (Space for answer)</p> <p>22</p> <p>MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION</p> <p>Pharmacognosy</p> <p>Experiment No. 4</p> <p>(Space for answers)</p> <p>MAHARASHTRA STATE BOARD OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION</p> <p>23</p>