Chromosomes and Chromatin

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CHROMOSOMES AND CHROMATIN Juan Nicols Sarmiento Naranjo Medicine Student Pontifical Bolivariana University||| Semester

CHROMOSOMES AND CHROMATIN

MADE BY: JUAN NICOLS SARMIENTO NARANJO

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

||| SEMESTER

TEACHER: LINA MARTINEZ BIBLIOGRAPHY

Researchers discover mechanism of gene silencing in hormone-dependent breast cancer cells. (2016, July 8) http://www.news-medical.net/news/20160708/Researchers-discover-mechanism-of-gene-silencing-in-hormone-dependent-breast-cancer-cells.aspxScientists discover X-chromosome-inherited type of osteogenesis imperfecta (2016, July 6) http://www.news-medical.net/news/20160706/Scientists-discover-X-chromosome-inherited-type-of-osteogenesis-imperfecta.aspx

MEDICAL UTILITY

This both news revealed how science and all the medical stuff are applying the tecnology to find new techniques and processes on the genetic material to treat some pathologies that are involved the DNA in any form of packing: chromosomes or chromatin.

The possibility to have a mistake in some part of the DNA is very big and cause many dissease, like Cancer or Osteogenesis imperfecta. The first one is one of the most prevalent in all the world and is guilty of the death of many people. And the second one, (O.I) doesnt have the same concurrence of CA but symptoms are very serious.

INTRODUCTION

The DNA in eukaryotic cells is a double helix that is organized in a specific way , which presents a packing process with some proteins and resulting a condensation called chromatin, and subsequently condensed in chromosomes to perform the division. In the cell cycle, the chromosomes has a very important job because theyre the performer of the equal division of genetic material.

Scientists discover X-chromosome-inherited type of osteogenesis imperfecta

Some researchers from the Zurichs Hospital have found that the X chromosome is involved in the congenital disease of Osteogenesis imperfecta. Is a new tipe of brittle- bone disease who is caused for two mutationsof the gen MBTPS2 in the X chromosm. This makes men (caryotip XY) more vulnerable.

STUDENTS OPINION: I think this discovery is very important because all the medical staff can be more forwarned of the treatments and previous diagnosis of the osteogenesis imperfecta, avoiding the increase of the patients.

Researchers discover mechanism of gene silencing in hormone-dependent breast cancer cellsCancer cells have been studied for many years, and now, some researches have found a protein that can interact repressing the progesterone receptor, and compacting the chromatin,

making them very difficult to continue its process correctly, and intervene inthe proliferation or death of the breast cancer cells, avoiding some kind of neoplasia.

STUDENTS OPINION: Today, the breast cancer has elevated its presence in women, affecting them and now with the progress of the science, reprresing that cells is a very good step not only for the medicine but also for the peoples health

INTRODUCTION

The DNA has a packing procces with a condensation Double helix, nucleosome, chromatosome, solenoid ( 30 nm long), and chromosome.

A fundamental characteristic of cells is their hability to divided. The cell cycle is based in four steps: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase, with finally the cytokinesis.

SCIENTISTS DISCOVER X-CHROMOSOME-INHERITED TYPE OF OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTAUNIVERSITY OF ZURICH

(2016, JULY 6)

SCIENTISTS DISCOVER X-CHROMOSOME-INHERITED TYPE OF OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA

SCIENTISTS DISCOVER X-CHROMOSOME-INHERITED TYPE OF OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA

SCIENTISTS DISCOVER X-CHROMOSOME-INHERITED TYPE OF OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA

One gen is a part of the material genetic that its expression is very important to the develop of any sickness. The gen MBTPS2 of the X chromosome is one of the cause of the O.I but also of dermatological disease, and maybe it can be the guilty of many illnes but now, the science cant show us all the intervetion of the gens in all kind of phenotypes.

STUDENTS OPINION: I think this discovery is very important because all the medical staff can be more forwarned of the treatments and previous diagnosis of the osteogenesis imperfecta, avoiding the increase of the patients.

SCIENTISTS DISCOVER X-CHROMOSOME-INHERITED TYPE OF OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA

RESEARCHERS DISCOVER MECHANISM OF GENE SILENCING IN HORMONE-DEPENDENT BREAST CANCER CELLS

RESEARCHERS DISCOVER MECHANISM OF GENE SILENCING IN HORMONE-DEPENDENT BREAST CANCER CELLS

The breast cancer is a neoplasia wich mainly affects women and in low proportion men in the actuallity, with a differential sign that is a tumor in any part of the breast.

RESEARCHERS DISCOVER MECHANISM OF GENE SILENCING IN HORMONE-DEPENDENT BREAST CANCER CELLS

Hormones are a substance that is excreteated by endocrine glands and are related with the cell metabolism. There are many kinds of hormones, one of this are the steroid hormones that are involved in the activity of the genss expression. Progesterone is one of the hormones that the reaserchers study to inhibited their receptors andSILENCE GENS

To repress a hormonal receptor they need a Complex of proteins wich are FOX A1 and BRG1 that make a change on the chromosome estructure generating a condensation of the genetic material and avoiding its separtion to read all the information. RESEARCHERS DISCOVER MECHANISM OF GENE SILENCING IN HORMONE-DEPENDENT BREAST CANCER CELLS

FOX A1 BRG1

Some gens are relacionated in death or proliferation cell, it depends of the complex that they are joined

STUDENTS OPINION: Today, the breast cancer has elevated its presence in women, affecting them and now with the progress of the science, reprresing that cells is a very good step not only for the medicine but also for the peoples healthRESEARCHERS DISCOVER MECHANISM OF GENE SILENCING IN HORMONE-DEPENDENT BREAST CANCER CELLS

MEDICAL UTILITY

MEDICAL UTILITY

DNA studies and investigations has allowed in the present been reached of any specific part of the genetic material related to fenotipic expression in all the people. This has been a very big progress of the science, medicine and molecular biology. Scientists of past centuries proposed theories and techniques that now with all the technology we can do more easly.

MEDICAL UTILITY

PCR is one of the process that is used to obtain a clone of genetic material and get an amplification of some especific part of the DNA to view some mistake or some special secuency.Some techniques used in DNA process are Human Genome Project is a research with the objective to show all the sequences of the DNA and later make the process more convenient.

MEDICAL UTILITY

Cancer and Osteogenesis imperfecta are diseases with a bad forecast for the patient, and find a cure for this illness is very hard because the science cant get finally it. But, get a treatment for the symptoms that pacients suffer is not only a step more in the science, but also is a step to be more close of the end of the disease.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Researchers discover mechanism of gene silencing in hormone-dependent breast cancer cells. (2016, July 8) http://www.news-medical.net/news/20160708/Researchers-discover-mechanism-of-gene-silencing-in-hormone-dependent-breast-cancer-cells.aspx

Scientists discover X-chromosome-inherited type of osteogenesis imperfecta (2016, July 6) http://www.news-medical.net/news/20160706/Scientists-discover-X-chromosome-inherited-type-of-osteogenesis-imperfecta.aspx

THE ART OF MEDICINE CONSISTS IN AMUSING THE PATIENT WHILE NATURE CURES THE DISEASE

-VOLTAIRE

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