China's New Rural Income Support Policy: Impacts on Grain Production and Rural Income Inequality

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58 China & World Economy / 58 69, Vol. 14, No. 6, 20062006 The AuthorsJournal compilation 2006 Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social SciencesChinas New Rural Income Support Policy:Impacts on Grain Production and RuralIncome InequalityNico Heerink, Marijke Kuiper, Xiaoping Shi *AbstractThis paper analyses the impact of agricultural tax abolition and direct income payments tograin farmers on grain production and rural inequality in China. To separate the impact ofthe income support measures from recent price trends for grains and inputs, and to accountfor differences in household responses, we use a village-level general equilibrium modelthat we calibrate for two villages with different degrees of market access in Jiangxi province.The results show that the income support policy does not reach its goal of promoting grainproduction. The increased incomes allow farm households to buy more inputs for livestockproduction and involve other activities that are more profitable than grain farming. Sellingof rice outside the villages declines more than rice production, because households in thevillages consume more rice when incomes rise. We further find that the income supportmeasures tend to reduce income within a village, but that tax abolition tends to widen incomeinequality between villages.Key words: agricultural policy, China, grain production, household, income inequalityJEL codes: D58, Q12, Q18I. IntroductionSince the beginning of 2004, the Chinese Government has replaced its centuries-old policyof taxing agriculture by a new policy aimed at subsidizing agriculture and stimulating ruralincomes. To this end, agricultural taxes standing at around 8 percent of agriculturalincomes were drastically reduced. By now they are abolished in most provinces. In* Nico Heerink, Research Fellow, International Food Policy Research Institu te (IFPRI). Email:n.heerink@cgiar.org; Marijke Kuiper, Researcher, Agricultural-Economics Research Institute, The Hague,Netherlands. Email: marijke.kuiper@wur.nl; Xiaoping Shi, Associate Professor, College of LandManagement, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China. Email: serena2@njau.edu.cn.59Chinas New Rural Income Support Policy2006 The AuthorsJournal compilation 2006 Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciencesaddition, farmers growing grain receive a direct income subsidy, new seed varieties andmechanization are subsidized, and large public investments are made in agriculture andrural infrastructure. The main purpose of this policy is to raise rural incomes while at thesame time promoting grain production (Gale et al., 2005).During the first year of its introduction, the policy seems to have met with reasonablesuccess. Per capita real annual net incomes of rural households increased by 6.85 percentin 2004, while the urbanrural income inequality slightly decreased from 3.23 in 2003 to 3.20in 2004 (NBS, 2005a). The population in absolute poverty in rural areas (with annual percapita net income below RMB 668) declined from 29.0 to 26.1 million in 2004 (NBS, 2005b).Total grain output increased by 9.0 percent to 469.5 million tons in 2004, after steadilydeclining from 512.3 to 430.7 million tons from 1998 to 2003 (NBS, 2005a).The rise in grain production also coincided with rapidly rising grain prices since October2003 and favorable weather conditions in 2004. This raises the question of to what extentthe new rural income support policy has actually contributed to the increase in grainproduction and the growth in rural incomes, and to what extent other factors were partly orfully responsible for these achievements.To answer this question, we need to assess how farm households respond to risinggrain prices and to the income support measures, under constant weather conditions. Farmhousehold responses to price changes and income support measures depend on the avail-able resources within households for on-farm or off-farm incomes and on the degree towhich farm households are integrated into markets. The outcomes may therefore differconsiderably between different groups of farm households and between different villagesand regions. Insights into the groups that gain relatively more or less from the new ruralincome support measures, and the consequences for income inequality within rural areas,may provide important information for future policies aimed at reducing income inequalityand avoiding social unrest.The objective of this paper is to examine farm household responses to recent pricechanges and the new rural income support measures and to assess the resulting effects ongrain production and rural income inequality within and between villages. To reach thisobjective, we run simulations with a village computable general equilibrium (CGE) modelthat is applied to two villages in the northeast area of Jiangxi province. These villages differfundamentally in their degree of market access. There is convincing empirical evidence thatagricultural commodity markets in China have become highly integrated (Park et al., 2002;Huang et al., 2004; Huang and Rozelle, 2006). Transaction costs, however, differ considerablybetween villages with good market access and those located in remote areas. Moreover,markets for production factors such as agricultural land, labor and credit face manyinstitutional obstacles in China and remain underdeveloped in rural areas (Benjamin and60 Nico Heerink et al. / 58 69, Vol. 14, No. 6, 20062006 The AuthorsJournal compilation 2006 Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social SciencesBrandt, 2002; Carter and Yao, 2002; Bowlus and Sicular, 2003; Zhang and Tan, 2004; Kuiper,2005). These market imperfections have important implications for farm household choicesbetween grain production and high value-added production, and hence for the incomes ofdifferent household groups. The village CGE model that we use for our analysis takes suchfactor market imperfections into account.Model simulations of the impact of price changes and income support measures fortwo villages with different market access conditions allows us to assess differences inhousehold responses, incomes, and grain production levels between two villages. Theclassification of households within each village is based on the resources that householdshave: agricultural incomes (i.e. availability of draught power: animals or tractors) and off-farm incomes (i.e. education level and availability of links outside the province). Insightsobtained from such an analysis for two villages in the northeast area of Jiangxi province arerelevant for many other villages and regions in China and therefore allow us to drawconclusions that have a more general validity.The structure of the paper is organized as follows. Background information on the twovillages and the method of data collection are provided in Section II. Section III describesthe structure of the village CGE model and the scenarios that are used for the modelsimulations. Section IV presents and interprets the results of the model simulations, andSection V concludes the paper.II. Description of the Research SitesThe two villages selected for the study were Gangyan village in Yanshan County andShangzhu village in Guixi City, both in the northeast area of Jiangxi province. Gangyanvillage is located on plains at about 20 km from the county capital. Almost all arable land (97percent) in this village is irrigated. Shangzhu village is located in a remote and mountainousarea close to the border with Fujian province. Rice is the main crop in both villages, withmost rice land in Gangyan producing two crops a year and most rice land in Shangzhuvillage producing only one crop per year. An extensive household survey, to collect alldata necessary for building village social accounting matrices covering the year 2000, washeld in August 2000 and February 2001. A stratified random sample was used for selectingthe households, with the hamlets or natural villages within each village forming thestrata. In total, 168 households were interviewed in Gangyan village and 109 households inShangzhu village, representing around 23 percent of the households in both villages.Basic information on the two selected villages is presented in Table 1. Per capitaincome in the year 2000 was only 1042 RMB (US$126) in Shangzhu village. In Gangyanvillage, it was 78 percent higher. Rice yields in Shangzhu village are approximately 1561Chinas New Rural Income Support Policy2006 The AuthorsJournal compilation 2006 Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciencespercent below the yields in Gangyan village. Off-farm incomes are an important source ofhousehold incomes, contributing 45 percent and 41 percent of household incomes inGangyan village and Shangzhu village, respectively. Agricultural tax payments make upapproximately 4 percent of farm incomes.III. MethodologySimulations of the impact of recent price changes and farm income support policy are madewith a village-level CGE model that allows for simultaneous decision making on production,consumption and labor supply by farm households. The model applies a macro-level generalequilibrium model structure, but is modified in such a way that the modeled householdbehavior is fully compatible with the rural household literature (Singh et al., 1986). Non-separability of household decisions is built into the village-level equilibrium model usingan approach suggested by Lfgren and Robinson (1999). The result is a hybrid villagemodel that takes into account the interactions among households within the village, whilepreserving individual rationality. The position of households in markets as net buyers,autarkic, or net sellers is made endogenous in the model through the use of mixedcomplementarity constraints. Both the non-separability of decision-making and theendogeneity of the household position are departures from existing village models likethose in Taylor and Adelman (1996).Three commodity groups are distinguished in the model:Source: Household survey organized by authors in August 2000 and February 2001.Table 1 . Characteristics of the Two Selected Villages, 2000 Gangyan Shangzhu Households 730 472 Sample size 168 109 Accessibility Close to city Remote Land characteristics Plains 97% upland Irrigated land per household (mu) 6.06 5.06 Irrigated land / farmland (%) 97 86 One-season rice area/total rice area (%) 18.5 71.6 Major crops Rice, vegetables, sugarcane Rice, bamboo, bamboo shoots Rice yield (kg/ha) 4629 3950 Fertilizer use in rice (kg/ha) 759 481 Income per capita (RMB) 1854 1042 Off-farm income share (%) 45.4 40.7 Tax payments per household (RMB) 492 227 Tax / household income (%) 5.9 5.0 Agricultural tax per household (RMB) 382 186 Agricultural tax / farm income (%) 4.5 3.8 62 Nico Heerink et al. / 58 69, Vol. 14, No. 6, 20062006 The AuthorsJournal compilation 2006 Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Tradables: are tradable outside the village; their prices do not depend on changes indemand and supply within the village; Village non-tradables: are tradable only within the village; their prices depend ondemand and supply within the village; Household non-tradables: are not tradable; their (shadow) prices depend on demandand supply of the household.Data from the household survey and insights obtained during the fieldwork are usedfor classifying commodities. Traction services, agricultural labor and locally producedconsumption goods are classified as village non-tradables, while arable land, manure andcrop residues and, in Shangzhu village, forest land and fuel wood, are household non-tradables. All the other commodities in the model are tradables. Village prices for agriculturallabor and locally produced consumption goods are assumed to be fixed, resulting in demand-driven markets and non-zero profits; traction services are governed by an endogenousvillage price.Four household groups are distinguished in each village, based on the four possiblecombinations of availability of resources for earning agricultural income and resources forearning off-farm income (Table 2). The ownership of draught power (animals or tractors)was identified as the main resource for earning agricultural incomes in both villages.Explorative data analysis further indicates that the presence of a link outside the province(defined as the presence of a migrated household member or a relative sending remittances)is the most important resource for non-agricultural incomes in Gangyan village, while inShangzhu village it is the number of educated household members (defined as memberswith more than 4 years schooling).The four possible combinations of draught power ownership (yes/no) and presence ofa link outside the province (yes/no) define the four groups in Gangyan village (see top partof Table 2). In Shangzhu village, the first group consists of households with no educatedTable 2. Classification of Household intoFour Groups in the Two Villages Household group Village 1 2 3 4 Owns draught power No Yes No Yes Link outside province No No Yes Yes Gangyan Number of households 18 23 59 68 Owns draught power No Yes Yes Educated members None 1 1 or 2 3 Shangzhu Number of households 16 14 35 44 63Chinas New Rural Income Support Policy2006 The AuthorsJournal compilation 2006 Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Scienceshousehold members. Some of the households in group 1 own draught power, others donot. The households with at least one educated household member are sub-divided intothree groups. Group 2 consists of households owning no draught power, group 3 ofhouseholds owning draught power and having one or two educated household members,while group 4 consists of households owning draught power and having three or moreeducated members. Using these household classifications, a village social accountingmatrix (SAM) was constructed for both villages. These SAMs were used for calibrating thevillage CGE model for each village. (A detailed description of the structure of the model andthe calibration of the model for Gangyan can be found in Kuiper, 2005).The design of the three scenarios is described in Table 3. The first scenario assessesthe impact of price changes from 2000 until August 2004.1 Considerable price changes tookplace over that period in Jiangxi province and the rest of China. Rice prices initially declinedsomewhat, but increased rapidly since the autumn of 2003, resulting in a price increase ofmore than 35 percent over the entire period. Prices of fertilizers, the main variable input incrop production, increased by about 13 percent during the same period, while pork pricesdeclined by 2.8 percent. The inflation rate (as measured by the consumer price index) was4.9 percent during this period. The first scenario simulates the impact of these price changesonly. The second and third scenario simulate the impact of the same price changes combinedwith the two main components of the rural income support policy, direct subsidies to grainfarmers and agricultural tax cuts, respectively. Farmers in Jiangxi province received a subsidyof 10 yuan per mu in 2004 for each plot with early rice, late rice or one-season rice (Gale etal., 2005). The impact of this direct income support policy is simulated in Scenario 2.Agricultural taxes have been cut in all provinces in China since the beginning of 2004 andwere abolished in most provinces (including Jiangxi province) by the end of 2005. Scenario1 This scenario is based on price trend between 2000 and August 2004 for Jiangxi as a whole. The authorswould like to thank Nie Fengying of the Scientech Information and Documentation Center at theChinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences for providing us with the price data for Jiangxi province.Note: CPI, consumer price index.Table 3. Description of Scenarios Usedin Village Model Simulations Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Price changes (20002004): Rice Pork Fertilizer CPI +36.6% 2.8% +13% +4.9% +36.6% 2.8% +13% +4.9% +36.6% 2.8% +13% +4.9% Income support policy measures 10 yuan per mu rice land Full abolishment of agricultural tax 64 Nico Heerink et al. / 58 69, Vol. 14, No. 6, 20062006 The AuthorsJournal compilation 2006 Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences3 simulates the impact of full tax abolition. By comparing the results for these three scenarios,we can separate household responses to the rapid price increases since the autumn of 2003from the responses to the main new income support measures implemented in 2004 (underconstant weather conditions).IV. Simulation ResultsThe results of Scenario 1 (price changes only) for the incomes in the two villages and theincomes of the four household groups in each village are shown in Table 4. (The householdgroups and their numbers correspond to the grouping presented in Table 2.) The incomegains from the price changes from 2000 to August 2004 are about 2 percentage pointssmaller in Shangzhu than in Gangyan (the village with good market access), as can be seenfrom the last column of Table 4. In both villages, the household groups that possessresources from off-farm employment and have limited agricultural resources (group 3 inGangyan and group 2 in Shangzhu), gain substantially less than the other three householdgroups. Because these are the groups with the highest incomes in the year 2000 in bothvillages, the income inequality within both villages was reduced substantially by therelatively large grain price increases that occurred since 2000.Table 5 shows the changes in production activities resulting from the price changes. InGangyan, all four income groups expand their production of two-season rice and reduce theproduction of one-season rice, pigs and (to a lesser extent) non-rice crops. Due to the shiftfrom one-season rice to two-season rice cultivation, the demand for traction services increasesand as a result the price of this village non-tradable (see Section III ) goes up by 57 percent.This explains why the two household groups possessing oxen and tractors (groups 2 and 4)gain relatively more than the two other household groups. In Shangzhu, rice production isstrongly dominated by one-season rice, and expanding two-season rice is not a realisticoption. The rapid price increase for rice therefore causes a very significant increase in one-Table 4. Income Results for Scenario 1 (Price Change Only) Household group Village 1 2 3 4 Total Owns draught power No Yes No Yes Link outside province No No Yes Yes Income 2000 (RMB) 6204 7273 9098 8997 8497 Gangyan Income increase 2000August 2004 (%) 27.0 33.4 11.8 24.0 20.7 Owns draught power No Yes Yes Educated members None 1 1 or 2 3 Income 2000 (RMB) 2861 6409 5114 4969 4891 Shangzhu Income increase 2000August 2004 (%) 21.1 7.0 24.6 17.6 18.5 65Chinas New Rural Income Support Policy2006 The AuthorsJournal compilation 2006 Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciencesseason rice production at the expense of perennials and pigs and small livestock. The area ofirrigated land is constant in the model, so the increase in rice production comes purely fromincreased input use. The price of traction services increases by 16 percent in this village,which adds to the income gains of the households possessing oxen (groups 3 and 4).Scenario 2 simulates the combined impact of the direct income subsidy to grain farmersand the same price changes as in Scenario 1. The direct income subsidy is paid in Jiangxiprovince on the basis of grain areas reported for taxation (Guo, 2004). It therefore adds to theincomes of rural households, but is not directly related to rice planting decisions. The simulationTable 6. Income and Production Results for Scenario 2(Price Change and Direct Income Payment) Household group Village 1 2 3 4 Total Owns draught power No Yes No Yes Link outside province No No Yes Yes Household income 2.1 2.1 1.0 1.7 1.6 One-season rice 2.0 2.2 1.0 1.8 1.6 Two-season rice 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 Other crops 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.1 Gangyan Pigs 1.9 2.4 0.3 4.5 1.5 Owns draught power No Yes Yes Educated members None 1 1 or 2 3 Household income 1.6 0.7 1.2 1.4 1.3 One-season rice 0.5 0.1 0.6 0.1 0.2 Two-season rice 0.3 1.6 1.3 2.0 0.9 Other crops 0.9 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.7 Perennials 3.8 0.1 1.0 1.3 0.7 Shangzhu Pigs, chicken, ducks 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.4 0.9 Note: Data in the table are percentage changes with respect to Scenario 1 (price change only).Note: Data in the table are percentage changes with respect to the base scenario. The base scenarioreflects the situation in the year 2000.Table 5. Production Results for Scenario 1 (Price Change Only) Household group Village 1 2 3 4 Total Owns draught power No Yes No Yes Link outside province No No Yes Yes One-season rice 54 72 61 73 68 Two-season rice 23 39 34 39 36 Other crops 7 9 11 11 11 Gangyan Pigs 51 79 46 55 53 Owns draught power No Yes Yes Educated members None 1 1 or 2 3 One-season rice 58 132 95 90 91 Two-season rice 4 59 53 45 42 Other crops 3 4 2 22 10 Perennials 69 16 83 50 61 Shangzhu Pigs, chicken, ducks 15 48 43 43 42 66 Nico Heerink et al. / 58 69, Vol. 14, No. 6, 20062006 The AuthorsJournal compilation 2006 Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciencesresults of this scenario are compared with the outcomes of Scenario 1. Table 6 shows theimpact on income and production activities. The policy has only a modest impact on incomes.The average income increase in Gangyan is 1.6 percent and 1.3 percent in Shangzhu. Therichest household groups (group 3 in Gangyan and group 2 in Shangzhu in Table 3) gain leastfrom it, so the income support policy reduces inequality within each of the villages.Farm households in Gangyan respond to the income increase by raising more pigs(except for group 3, the richest group) and switching from two-season rice to one-seasonrice. Pig production is intensive in the use of external inputs. The income increase meansthat farmers have more cash, which they can use for buying such inputs. Moreover withthe increase of wealth, households attach more value to leisure. As a result, the shadowprice of labor increases.2 The higher preference for leisure induces farm households to putless labor into agricultural production and hence to switch to a less intensive rice cultivation.These household responses to higher income levels imply that the direct income supportpolicy does not reach one of its major goals, namely promoting grain production.Households in Shangzhu also increase pig production (except for group 2, the richestgroup), but their response is smaller and they do not seem to resort to less intensive ricecultivation. This may partly be explained from the smaller increase in the shadow price oflabor in this village.3The third scenario simulates the combined effect of the full tax abolition and the pricechanges (Table 7). Results are again compared with those of the first scenario. The resultsare very similar to those of Scenario 2, but the magnitude of the changes is much larger. Theaverage income increase in Gangyan is 10.7 percent, while in Shangzhu it is only 5.0 percent.The absolute income increase caused by tax abolition is much higher in Gangyan village(Table 1), and the cash available for buying external inputs therefore increases much more.It also leads to a much higher increase in the shadow wage in Gangyan village than inShangzhu village.4 So, although income inequality within villages declines, the inequalitybetween villages increases. One of the major goals of this policy, to reduce income inequality,is therefore only partially realized.Table 8, finally, shows the changes in commodity flows going out of the two villages as2 Simulation results for the shadow prices, which are not shown in the tables, indicate that the shadowprice for labor increases by 1.72.2 percent for household groups 1, 2 and 4, but only 0.9 percent forhousehold group 3 (the richest group; Table 4).3 The shadow wage increases by 0.81.3 percent for household groups 1, 3 and 4, and only 0.1 percentfor household group 2 (the richest group; Table 4).4 The change in the shadow wage is 1117 percent for groups 1, 2 and 4 and 7 percent for group 3 inGangyan, while the change is only 3.34.3 percent for groups 1, 3 and 4 and 0.9 percent for group 2 inShangzhu.67Chinas New Rural Income Support Policy2006 The AuthorsJournal compilation 2006 Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciencesa result of the two income support measures. The amounts of rice sold outside the villagedecrease in both villages under Scenario 2 (direct income support) as well as Scenario 3(agricultural tax abolition). This is caused on the one hand by income-induced increases inrice consumption by households in the villages, and on the other hand by the lowerproduction levels of two-season rice in Gangyan village and one-season rice in Shangzhuvillage (the two major crops in these villages). The switch from rice production to pigproduction in Gangyan village causes an increase in pigs sold outside the village. InShangzhu village, however, exports of all agricultural commodities decline.V. ConclusionsSince the beginning of 2004, the Chinese government has adopted a new rural incomeNote: Data in the table are percentage changes with respect to Scenario 1 (price changes only). Household group Village 1 2 3 4 Total Owns draught power No Yes No Yes Link outside province No No Yes Yes Household income 16.5 14.8 7.4 11.0 10.7 One-season rice 15.3 15.6 7.3 11.9 11.1 Two-season rice 2.3 1.8 0.9 1.2 1.3 Other crops 2.6 1.1 2.4 2.4 0.7 Gangyan Pigs 14.9 17.4 2.2 29.0 9.9 Owns draught power No Yes Yes Educated members None 1 1 or 2 3 Household income 6.8 4.2 3.9 5.9 5.0 One-season rice 1.7 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 Two-season rice 1.3 8.6 16.8 6.3 4.4 Other crops 4.3 3.5 0.4 3.5 2.3 Perennials 16.8 0.8 3.8 6.7 3.8 Shangzhu Pigs, chicken, ducks 5.5 6.4 6.5 5.4 3.8 Table 7. Income and Production Results for Scenario 3(Price Change and Tax Abolition)Table 8. Agricultural Commodity Exports from the Two Villages Scenario Village 2 3 Rice 1.5 10.7 Other crops 9.4 67.2 Gangyan Pigs 1.4 9.2 Rice 0.9 3.0 Other crops 0.0 0.0 Perennials 1.5 7.3 Shangzhu Pigs, chicken, ducks 7.0 42.2 Note: Data in the table are percentage changes with respect to Scenario 1 (price changes only).68 Nico Heerink et al. / 58 69, Vol. 14, No. 6, 20062006 The AuthorsJournal compilation 2006 Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciencessupport policy that is more in line with WTO regulations. Its major purpose is to reduce thegrowing income inequality in China, while at the same time promoting grain production andfood self-sufficiency. The two major measures taken are direct income support payments tograin farmers and abolition of agricultural taxes and fees paid by rural households. Theresults of two village models show that the policy does not reach its goal of promotinggrain production; the large increase in grain production in 2004 was not caused by theincome support policy but by the rapid price increases in 20032004. The increased incomesresulting from the new policy allow farm households to buy more inputs that can be usedin livestock production and other activities that are more profitable than grain farming.Moreover, because leisure is valued higher with increasing incomes, farmers tend to switchto less intensive grain production. Because self-consumption of grain by householdsincreases with higher incomes, the selling of rice outside the village declines even morethan grain production.We further find that tax abolition has a much stronger impact on incomes and productionthan the direct income support (at around RMB 10 per mu) of 2004. Both measures tend toreduce income inequality within a village, because the richest household groups who aremore involved in off-farm employment benefit less. Tax abolition, however, tends to widenincome inequality between villages, because the absolute income gain from tax abolition ismuch higher in relatively rich villages. The switch towards more profitable activities suchas livestock production is therefore much stronger in such villages than in relatively poorvillages.ReferencesBenjamin, Dwayne and Lauren Brandt, 2002, Property rights, labour markets, and efficiency in atransition economy: The case of rural China, Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 35, pp.689716.Bowlus, Audra J. and Terry Sicular, 2003, Moving towards markets? Labor allocation in ruralChina, Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 71, pp. 56183.Gale, Fred, Bryan Lohmar and Francis Tuan, 2005, Chinas new farm subsidies, United StatesDepartment of Agriculture Outlook, WRS-05-01. Washington, D.C.: Economic Research Service,United States Department of Agriculture. Available from: www.ers.usda.gov/publications/WRS0501/WRS0501.pdf .Carter, Michael R. and Yang Yao, 2002, Local versus global separability in agricultural householdmodels: The factor price equalization effect of land transfer rights, American Journal ofAgricultural Economics, Vol. 84, pp. 70215.Guo, Jianjin, 2004, [On the execution and problems of Chinas agricultural subsidy policies, andsome proposals for them, ] Survey and Research Report No.201. Rural Economic Research69Chinas New Rural Income Support Policy2006 The AuthorsJournal compilation 2006 Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social SciencesSection, Development Research Center of the State Council, Beijing. Available from: http://engine.cqvip.com/content/citation.dll?id=11458833.Huang, Jikun and Scott Rozelle, 2006, The emergence of agricultural commodity markets in China,China Economic Review, Vol. 17, pp. 26680.Huang, Jikun, Scott Rozelle and Min Chang, 2004, Tracking distortions in agriculture: China and itsaccession to the World Trade Organization, World Bank Economic Review, Vol. 18, pp. 5984.Kuiper, Marijke H., 2005, Village equilibrium modeling: A Chinese recipe for blending generalequilibrium and household modeling (PhD dissertation). Wageningen University, Netherlands.Available from: http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wda/1744830.Lfgren, Hans and Sherman Robinson, 1999, Nonseparable farm household decisions in a computablegeneral equilibrium model, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 81, pp. 66370.NBS (National Bureau of Statistics of China), 2005a, China Statistical Yearbook, 2005, Beijing:China Statistics Press.NBS, 2005b, Statistical Communiqu of National and Social Development in 2004, Beijing: ChinaStatistics Press.Park, Albert, Hehui Jin, Scott Rozelle and Jikun Huang, 2002, Market emergence and transition:Transaction costs, arbitrage, and autarky in Chinas grain market, American Journal ofAgricultural Economics, Vol. 84, pp. 6782.Singh, Inderjit, Lynn Squire and John Strauss, eds, 1986, Agricultural Household Models. Extensions,Applications and Policy, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Taylor, J. Edward and Irma Adelman, 1996, Village Economies: The Design, Estimation and Use ofVillage-wide Economic Models, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Zhang, Xiaobo and Kong-Yam Tan, 2004, Blunt to sharpened razor: Incremental reform and distortionsin the product and capital markets in China, Development and Governance Strategies DivisionDiscussion Paper, No.13. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.Available from: http://www.ifpri.org/divs/dsgd/dp/papers/dsgdp13.pdf.(Edited by Zhinan Zhang)

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