chapter thirteen â€“ organizational effectiveness. ï‚§ be able to...
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Chapter Thirteen Organizational Effectiveness
Be able to define organizational effectivenessUnderstand the issues underpinning measuring organizational effectivenessDiscuss the difficulties of the goal modelBe able to briefly discuss the three significant elements of the process approachUnderstand variable analysisUnderstand why ethical problems arise out of attempts to measure effectiveness
Effectiveness the degree of congruence between organizational goals and some observed outcome.Alternative views of organizational effectiveness, is it:Organizational survival,Environmental adaptability,Based on multiple indicators, orBased on multiple perspectives?
Cameron (1981) Reasons for confusionThere are important differences in the way scholars conceptualize organizations.Goals are often complex, multiple, and conflicting.Researchers often use multiple and overlapping measurement criteria.Effectiveness cannot be measured as a single phenomenon.
Why assess organizational effectiveness?ScholarsAccount for the growth or decline of an organizationInvestigate interactions between organizations and their environmentsSeek to understand the antecedents of effectivenessPractitionersEffectiveness influences how organizations are managed.AccountabilityCan lead to the redistribution of resources within the agency
Effectiveness studies (evaluation research) occur in a political context.The organization, program, and offices are creatures of a political process.The results of the study feed into the political processes that sustain or change the organizationThe studies themselves are political because they involve implicit statements about the legitimacy of goals and interests within the organization (Lovell, 2004).Effectiveness studies reflect the perspective of the organizations dominant coalition.
Some theoretical perspective must underlie any discussion of effectiveness (Hannan and Freeman, 1977).Even the question of whether an organization is regarded as succeeding or failing will depend on theory.There are seven commonly used models for assessing organizational effectiveness.
The most common assessment modelDefines effectiveness by the extent to which the organization achieved its goalsDifficultiesThere are limitations to the rationality of organizations.Cannot differentiate between official and operative goalsActivities not related to goals are not measured.The relationship between goal attainment and consequences is not straight forward.
Internal process effective organizations work efficientlyParticipant-satisfaction or strategic-constituency effective organizations serve the interests of the key constituencies.Process approach effectiveness is a process, not an resultSystems view incorporates concern for change in the environmentBehavioral emphasis focuses on attentiveness to the contributions of individual employeesSystems resource model extent to which the organization can attain the resources it needs
Variable analysisHighly related to the goal modelStudies involve the identification and measurement of some goal or goalsMost common method used to assess organizational effectivenessAttempts to examine causal links in the attainment of some goal
Gross-malfunctioning analysisThe target of inquiry is failed of failing organizations.The analysis examines the reasons behind the failureUsually done following a major event (e.g. prison riot)Revelatory analysisAsks who is getting what from an organizationHow organizations are used by internal and external groups.
What domain or activity is the target of assessment?Using a single dimension is difficult because criminal justice agencies do so many different things.Differentiate between;Performance appraisal processes central to the evaluation of an individuals performancePerformance measurement the relationship between performance and actual goal accomplishment Effective studies incorporate multiple dimensions.
After settling on the domain to focus on, the next stop is to identify the variables that will be used to measure performance.Validity in variables is the key consideration does the variable measure what it purports to measure?How the variables are measured is the next consideration.Levels of measurementOther measurement rules and procedures (e.g. recidivism)
Alternatives to outcome measuresProcess measures measure the activities assumed to cause effectiveness within organizationsStructure measures measure the organizational features or participant characteristics that are presumed to have an impact on effectiveness
Multiple measuresOvercome the difficulties associated with single measures of effectivenessMultigoal/multimeasure designs give a more comprehensive view of organizational effectiveness that single measures.Skogans (1996) logic model of the programIntervention level of effort involvedMechanism how the program is to affect the outcomeOutcomes anticipated outcomes of the program
Data can be produced to make it appear that the organization is effective.The motivation to manipulate the dataFear of reprisalCompetition for resources (internal and external)Avoiding ethical problemsThe assessment must make senseThe goals (evaluative criteria) are realisticReduce fear of reprisalJudge managers within their domain
Organizational effectiveness is the degree of congruence between organizational goals and some observed outcomes.Organizations are complex and have complex and conflicting goals.The goal model assumes thatorganizational goals can be identified, members work toward goals, and that goal attainment can be achieved.
The three significant elements of the process approach are:Multiple goal attainment must be optimizedChanges in the organizations environment and goals will change, Considers the contribution of employees.
Variable analysis is:Selecting separate domains, Finding variables that provide measures of success within each domain, and Finding variables that are specific to effectiveness within each domain.Ethical problems in organizational effectiveness occur because it is relatively easy to produce numbers that make an individual or group look good, like the goals have been attained.
In cooperation with area agencies your department recently created a Fusion Center designed to collect and disseminate information relating to potential terroristic activities.The Fusion Center is staffed with numerous intelligence analysts.Using the goal model approach, develop a method for assessing the Fusion Centers organizational effectiveness.