chapter 8, bones, part 2: the appendicular chapter 8, bones, part 2: the appendicular skeleton...

Download Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular   Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton = Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbs

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  • 1

    Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton = Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbs

    Goal: Learn and locate the bones and markings of the appendicular skeleton

    Developed by John Gallagher, MS, DVM

  • 2

    The Girdles

    ! Pectoral Girdle n Supports the Arms n Clavicle and Scapula

    ! Pelvic Girdle n Supports the Legs n Pelvis ! Ilium, ischium, pubic bone

  • 3

    Clavicle (collarbone) Manubrium to Acromion

    S-shaped Frequently fractured

  • 4

    Scapula (shoulder blade)

    vOrigin of biceps brachii muscle: vCoracoid Process vSupraglenoid tubercle

    vGlenoid vSpine vAcromion vAcromioclavicular

    joint vInferior and Superior

    Angles

  • 5

    The Arm

    Synonym: Upper limb Upper Arm = Brachium Forearm = Antebrachium

    Humerus, Radius and Ulna Carpus (wrist) Hand (manus)

  • 6

    Humerus

    Head Greater and Lesser

    Tubercles Intertubercular Sulcus Biceps tendon

    Coronoid Fossa Olecranon Fossa Trochlea Medial and Lateral

    Epicondyles

  • 7

    Radius Ulna Head, neck, shaft Insertion of biceps brachii: Radial Tuberosity

    Radial Styloid Process

    Olecranon Trochlear notch Coronoid Process Ulnar Styloid Process

    Interosseous Membrane (between radius and ulna)

    Note how the two bones can cross

    Funny bone

  • 8

    Carpus (Wrist)

    n Four Proximal n Scaphoid, lunate,

    triquetrum, pisiform n Four Distal

    n Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate

    Scaphoid is frequently fractured

  • 9

    Hand = Manus

    Five metacarpal bones (1-5)

    Five fingers Labeled 1-5 Thumb = Pollex = digit 1

    Two phalangeal bones Fingers = phalanges = digits 2-5

    Three phalangeal bones Proximal, middle, distal

  • 10

    The Girdles

    n Pectoral Girdle n Supports the Arms n Clavicle and Scapula

    n Pelvic Girdle n Supports the Legs n Pelvis (os coxae)

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    Pelvis = os coxae = hip bone = (innominate bone)

    Three bones: Ilium, Ischium, Pubis Anterior and posterior iliac spines

    meet to form the iliac crest Greater and Lesser Sciatic Notches Ischial Tuberosity Acetabulum Acetabular fossa

    Obturator Foramen

  • 12

    More Pelvis

    n Articular Surface for Articulation with Sacrum

    n Difference between male and female

    n Pelvic (or pubic) symphysis n Fibrocartilage n Stretches at childbirth

    (Relaxin?)

  • 13

    Male vs. Female Pelvis

  • 14

    The leg

    AKA Lower Limb

    Femur Patella Tibia/fibula Tarsus Foot

  • 15

    Femur

    Head and fovea capitus Articulate with pelvis

    Neck (fx pelvis) Greater and Lesser

    Trochanters Shaft Lateral and medial

    condyles and epicondyles Intercondylar fossa Patellar Surface

  • 16

    Patella = knee cap

    Sesamoid Bone Enclosed in the tendon of

    the quadriceps group of muscles

    Skyline MRI of patella

  • 17

    Tibia = shin bone

    n Lateral and medial condyles n Intercondylar eminence

    n Tibial tuberosity n Inferior articular surface n Medial malleolus

    n (= ankle bone)

    Interosseous Membrane

  • 18

    Fibula

    n Head n Shaft n Lateral malleolus

    n (= ankle bone) n Not weight bearing

    n Frequent fx

    Interosseous Membrane

  • 19

    Tarsus (7 bones)

    Calcaneous Talus Navicular Cuboid Cunieform

    (3)

    Calcaneus

    Talus

    Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate

  • 20

    Foot

    Metatarsals (1-5) Phalanges (3 per toe

    except big toe) Longitudinal Arches Medial and lateral

    Transverse Arch

    Dancers fx

    Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate

  • 21

    Fractures (a review)

    Bleeding Then clot

    Periosteal reaction Fibroblasts Osteoblasts

    Callus New bone collar

    Remodeling

  • 22

    Hip fracture n Grandma fell and broke her hip.

    n More accurately, Grandma suffered a spontaneous fracture of her femoral neck and then fell.

    n Sometimes the fx is at the intertrochanteric line

    n Diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis

    n 25% die from complications in first year mostly related to immobility: n Anesthesia n Muscle Atrophy n Pneumonia n Decubitus ulcers n Depression and disorientation

  • 23

    Douglas Iris

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