Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton = Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbs

Download Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular   Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton = Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbs

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<ul><li><p>1 </p><p>Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton = Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbs </p><p>Goal: Learn and locate the bones and markings of the appendicular skeleton </p><p>Developed by John Gallagher, MS, DVM </p></li><li><p>2 </p><p>The Girdles </p><p>! Pectoral Girdle n Supports the Arms n Clavicle and Scapula </p><p>! Pelvic Girdle n Supports the Legs n Pelvis ! Ilium, ischium, pubic bone </p></li><li><p>3 </p><p>Clavicle (collarbone) Manubrium to Acromion </p><p>S-shaped Frequently fractured </p></li><li><p>4 </p><p>Scapula (shoulder blade) </p><p>vOrigin of biceps brachii muscle: vCoracoid Process vSupraglenoid tubercle </p><p>vGlenoid vSpine vAcromion vAcromioclavicular </p><p>joint vInferior and Superior </p><p>Angles </p></li><li><p>5 </p><p>The Arm </p><p> Synonym: Upper limb Upper Arm = Brachium Forearm = Antebrachium </p><p> Humerus, Radius and Ulna Carpus (wrist) Hand (manus) </p></li><li><p>6 </p><p>Humerus </p><p> Head Greater and Lesser </p><p>Tubercles Intertubercular Sulcus Biceps tendon </p><p> Coronoid Fossa Olecranon Fossa Trochlea Medial and Lateral </p><p>Epicondyles </p></li><li><p>7 </p><p>Radius Ulna Head, neck, shaft Insertion of biceps brachii: Radial Tuberosity </p><p> Radial Styloid Process </p><p> Olecranon Trochlear notch Coronoid Process Ulnar Styloid Process </p><p>Interosseous Membrane (between radius and ulna) </p><p>Note how the two bones can cross </p><p>Funny bone </p></li><li><p>8 </p><p>Carpus (Wrist) </p><p>n Four Proximal n Scaphoid, lunate, </p><p>triquetrum, pisiform n Four Distal </p><p>n Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate </p><p>Scaphoid is frequently fractured </p></li><li><p>9 </p><p>Hand = Manus </p><p> Five metacarpal bones (1-5) </p><p>Five fingers Labeled 1-5 Thumb = Pollex = digit 1 </p><p>Two phalangeal bones Fingers = phalanges = digits 2-5 </p><p>Three phalangeal bones Proximal, middle, distal </p></li><li><p>10 </p><p>The Girdles </p><p>n Pectoral Girdle n Supports the Arms n Clavicle and Scapula </p><p>n Pelvic Girdle n Supports the Legs n Pelvis (os coxae) </p></li><li><p>11 </p><p>Pelvis = os coxae = hip bone = (innominate bone) </p><p> Three bones: Ilium, Ischium, Pubis Anterior and posterior iliac spines </p><p>meet to form the iliac crest Greater and Lesser Sciatic Notches Ischial Tuberosity Acetabulum Acetabular fossa </p><p> Obturator Foramen </p></li><li><p>12 </p><p>More Pelvis </p><p>n Articular Surface for Articulation with Sacrum </p><p>n Difference between male and female </p><p>n Pelvic (or pubic) symphysis n Fibrocartilage n Stretches at childbirth </p><p>(Relaxin?) </p></li><li><p>13 </p><p>Male vs. Female Pelvis </p></li><li><p>14 </p><p>The leg </p><p> AKA Lower Limb </p><p> Femur Patella Tibia/fibula Tarsus Foot </p></li><li><p>15 </p><p>Femur </p><p> Head and fovea capitus Articulate with pelvis </p><p> Neck (fx pelvis) Greater and Lesser </p><p>Trochanters Shaft Lateral and medial </p><p>condyles and epicondyles Intercondylar fossa Patellar Surface </p></li><li><p>16 </p><p>Patella = knee cap </p><p> Sesamoid Bone Enclosed in the tendon of </p><p>the quadriceps group of muscles </p><p>Skyline MRI of patella </p></li><li><p>17 </p><p>Tibia = shin bone </p><p>n Lateral and medial condyles n Intercondylar eminence </p><p>n Tibial tuberosity n Inferior articular surface n Medial malleolus </p><p>n (= ankle bone) </p><p>Interosseous Membrane </p></li><li><p>18 </p><p>Fibula </p><p>n Head n Shaft n Lateral malleolus </p><p>n (= ankle bone) n Not weight bearing </p><p>n Frequent fx </p><p>Interosseous Membrane </p></li><li><p>19 </p><p>Tarsus (7 bones) </p><p> Calcaneous Talus Navicular Cuboid Cunieform </p><p>(3) </p><p>Calcaneus </p><p>Talus </p><p>Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate </p></li><li><p>20 </p><p>Foot </p><p> Metatarsals (1-5) Phalanges (3 per toe </p><p>except big toe) Longitudinal Arches Medial and lateral </p><p> Transverse Arch </p><p>Dancers fx </p><p>Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate </p></li><li><p>21 </p><p>Fractures (a review) </p><p> Bleeding Then clot </p><p> Periosteal reaction Fibroblasts Osteoblasts </p><p> Callus New bone collar </p><p> Remodeling </p></li><li><p>22 </p><p>Hip fracture n Grandma fell and broke her hip. </p><p>n More accurately, Grandma suffered a spontaneous fracture of her femoral neck and then fell. </p><p>n Sometimes the fx is at the intertrochanteric line </p><p>n Diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis </p><p>n 25% die from complications in first year mostly related to immobility: n Anesthesia n Muscle Atrophy n Pneumonia n Decubitus ulcers n Depression and disorientation </p></li><li><p>23 </p><p>Douglas Iris </p></li></ul>

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