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  • Chapter 1The Profession of Pharmacy

  • Chapter 1 TopicsAncient OriginsPharmacistPharmacy TechnicianPharmacy Workplace of Today

  • Learning ObjectivesDescribe the origins of pharmacyDescribe the four stages of development of the pharmacy profession in the twentieth centuryEnumerate the functions of the pharmacistDiscuss the educational curriculum for todays pharmacy studentExplain the licensing requirements for pharmacistsIdentify the duties and work environments of the pharmacy technicianDifferentiate among the various kinds of pharmacies

  • Ancient OriginsPharmacy comes from the Greek word pharmakon, meaning drugScientific approach to medicine began with the ancient GreeksHippocratesProposed that disease came from natural, not supernatural causesEstablished the theory of humors (blood, phlegm, black bile, yellow bile)

  • Ancient OriginsGalenConducted animal experimentsProduced a systematic classification of drugs for treatment of diseaseGalenical pharmacy described the process of creating extracts of active medicinals from plants

    DiascoridesFirst century A.D.De Materia Medica (standard text on drugs for 1500 years)

  • Ancient OriginsDr. John MorganEighteenth CenturySupported the separation of the professions of pharmacy and medicine

  • pharmakontheory of humorsgalenical pharmacyDe Materia MedicaTerms to RememberLearn more at American Institute of the History of Pharmacy (AIHP)

  • DiscussionHow has the profession and practice of pharmacy evolved since ancient times?

  • PharmacistThe profession of pharmacy exists to safeguard the health of the publicThe pharmacist is one who is licensed to prepare and dispense medications, counsel patients, and monitor outcomes pursuant to a prescription from a licensed health professionalThe role of the modern pharmacist evolvedfrom compounder and dispenserto providing medication information and preventing medication-related problems

  • Evolution of the Pharmacists RoleDuring the twentieth century, the pharmacy profession has evolved through four stages.

    Traditional Era Scientific Era Clinical Era Pharmaceutical-care Era

  • Traditional EraEarly twentieth centuryFormulation and dispensing of drugs from natural sourcesPharmacognosyThe study of the medicinal properties of natural products of animal, plant, and mineral originsGalenical pharmacyTechniques for preparing medications

  • Scientific EraBegan after World War II Emergence of the pharmaceutical industryDrugs made in factories, not apothecary shopPharmacy education emphasized sciencesPharmacology The scientific study of drugs and their mechanism of action including side effectsPharmaceuticsRelease characteristics of drug dose forms

  • Clinical Era1975: Millis Report, Pharmacists for the FutureNew educational emphasis on clinical (patient-oriented) pharmacyPharmacokineticsthe activity of a drug within the body over a period of time; includes absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination Pathophysiologythe study of disease and illnesses affecting the normal function of the body

  • Pharmaceutical-Care Era1990: Hepler and Strand definedPharmaceutical carea philosophy that expanded the pharmacists role to include appropriate medication use to achieve positive outcomes with prescribed drug therapyincludesMonitoring response to therapyEducating patients and dispensing prescriptionsVisit the American Pharmacists Association (APhA)

  • DiscussionHow does the pharmaceutical care model affect the duties of pharmacists in the 21st Century? medication outcomes?

  • Terms to Remember

    pharmacist pharmaceutics pharmacognosy pharmacokinetics galenical pharmacy pathophysiology pharmacology pharmaceutical care

  • Role of the PharmacistTodays pharmacist:Compounds and dispenses drugsGathers information about patientsCounsels on possible side effects and adverse reactionsMonitors for drug interactionsScreens, monitors, and advises for self-treatment with over-the-counter (OTC) products sold without a prescriptionProvides drug information to other healthcare professionalsAdvises on home healthcare supplies and medical equipment

  • Community PharmacistDispenses drugs for exiting diseaseInvolved in patient care initiatives to prevent or identify diseaseAdministration of immunizationsscreening for and educating about hypertension, diabetes, and other conditionsproviding education about lifestyle choices and dietary supplementsRuns a businesshires and supervises employeesdeals with insurance companiesmaintains inventory

  • Hospital PharmacistDispenses oral medicationsPrepares and dispenses parenteral medicationsSometimes specializes, with advanced training in an area of patient careEducates and counsels patientsProvides drug informationAdministers a departmentdevelops policies and procedurespurchases drugs and suppliesmonitors drug use in the hospitalLearn more about hospital pharmacy at the web site of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP)

  • Home Healthcare PharmacistPrepares medications and IVs for home delivery and useincluding IV nutrition and antibioticscancer chemotherapypain medicationsEducates patient or caregiver on appropriate and safe medication useMonitors patients response to prescribed therapies

  • Other Pharmacy SettingsHealth maintenance organization (HMO)Long-term care facilitiesSpecialized practicepsychiatrydrug abuseNursing homesgeriatrics

  • Nuclear Pharmacy Nuclear pharmacistProcures, stores, compounds, dispenses, and provides information about radioactive pharmaceuticals used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposesLearn more about nuclear pharmacy at the Cardinal Web site

  • Education and Licensing Requirements Education6 year program2 years prePharmacycalculus, chemistry, biologyPharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT)Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degreebasic science courses practice setting experienceResidency in specialty area is optionalFor a listing of accredited schools of pharmacy, visit the Web site for the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP)

  • Education and Licensing RequirementsLicensingrequired by all statesoverseen by board of pharmacyinvolvesgraduation form an accredited college of pharmacypassing state board certification examinationserving an internshipcontinuing education for license renewal

  • Discussion What are the differences and similarities between and among the various pharmacy practice settings?

    How does specialized training affect the role of the pharmacist?

  • Terms to Remember


    over-the-counter (OTC)

  • Pharmacy TechnicianA pharmacy technician, also called the pharmacy tech, is an individual working in a pharmacy who, under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist, assists in pharmacy activities that do not require the professional judgment of a pharmacist. Regardless of practice setting, the pharmacy tech can assist with workload. The pharmacist provides the final check on the original prescription with the medication bottle and label before counseling the patient.

  • Evolution of the Pharmacy Technicians RoleWithout pharmacy technicians, pharmacists would not have sufficient time for the duties involved in pharmaceutical care.counseling patientsreviewing medication profilesmonitoring for side effects and adverse reactionsscreening patients for diseasediscussing cost-effective drug therapy options with the prescriber

  • Evolution of the Pharmacy Technicians RolePharmacy technicians play a valuable role in reducing the risk of medication errors.Safety Note!

  • Evolution of the Pharmacy Technicians RoleOriginally, many pharmacy techs were trained as medics in the military.returned after service to take positions in hospitals In community pharmacy the pharmacy tech evolved from clerk or cashier to a pharmacists assistant.

  • Evolution of the Pharmacy Technicians RoleA pharmacy technician assists the pharmacist with routine functions.leaves professional decision making and judgment calls to the pharmacistTechnician activities may range from ordering, stocking, and inventorying drugs to preparing the IV order to assisting in the dispensing process.the pharmacist must always check his or her work the pharmacist is responsible for patient counseling the technician functions in strict accordance with standard written procedures and guidelines

  • Evolution of the Pharmacy Technicians RoleThe pharmacy technicians works under the direction of the supervising pharmacist.Safety Note!

  • Evolution of the Pharmacy Technicians RoleCentral defining feature of the technicians job is accountability to the pharmacist for the quality and accuracy of his or her work. The essential differences in the duties of a pharmacist and a technician involve: accountabilitymaking decisions about the patients healthcare

  • Education and Licensing RequirementsMost state boards of pharmacy recognize the existence and importance of the pharmacy technician. Each state board of pharmacy regulates:the activities of pharmacy technicianssometimes the ratio of pharmacy techs to pharmacists

  • Education and Licensing RequirementsIn the past, on-the-job training was sufficient for the tech working in a pharmacy. Now formal technician training programs train pharmacy technicians for their expanded roles. Initially centered in hospitals to train staff in the necessary functions of the hospital pharmacy. Now many programs are offered by community colleges and technical schools.

  • Education and Licensing RequirementsASHP developed a model curriculum to meet the needs of all practice settings. In some states pharmac


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