Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology. Why Study Psychology? Psychology is ____________ Psychology is a powerful way of thinking Psychology teaches a

Download Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology. Why Study Psychology? Psychology is ____________ Psychology is a powerful way of thinking Psychology teaches a

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  • Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology

  • Why Study Psychology?Psychology is ____________Psychology is a powerful way of thinkingPsychology teaches a healthy respect for the __________ of behavior

  • From Speculation to Science:How Psychology DevelopedPrior to 1879Physiologists and philosophers studying questions about the mind_____________ (1832-1920) University of Leipzig, Germany Campaigned to make psychology an independent disciplineEstablished the first _________ for the study of psychology in 1879_____________ was born

  • Figure 1.1 Early Research Laboratories in North America

  • The Battle of the Schools Begins: Structuralism vs. Functionalism____________ Edward TitchenerAnalyze consciousness into basic elements______________ Careful, systematic observations of ones own conscious experience________________ William JamesInvestigate function of consciousnessLed to investigation of mental testing, developmental patterns, and sex differences

  • Sigmund Freud and the Concept of the Unconscious Mind_____________ (1856-1939): AustriaFounded _____________ school of thoughtEmphasis on _____________ processes influencing behaviorUnconscious = outside awareness

  • Freuds Ideas:Controversy and Influence__________ is influenced by the unconsciousUnconscious conflict related to __________ plays a central role in behaviorControversial notions caused debate/resistanceSignificant ____________ on the field of psychology

  • Behaviorism: Redefining Psychology______________ (1878-1958): United StatesFounder of ____________________ = scientific study of behavior__________= overt or observable responses or activitiesRadical reorientation of psychology as a science of observable behaviorStudy of consciousness _________

  • John Watson and the Nature-Nurture Debate Nurture, not ________give me a dozen healthy ______, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up in and Ill guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of __________ I might select doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggar-man and thief_________ school of thought emphasized the environment (nurture)

  • Are people free?B.F. Skinner___________ (1904-1990): United States Environmental factors determine behaviorResponses that lead to ________ outcomes are repeatedResponses that lead to negative outcomes are not repeated_____________________More controversy regarding ____ ____

  • The 1950s: Opposition to Psychoanalytic Theory and Behaviorism Charges that both were _____________Diverse opposition groups got together to form a loose allianceA new school of thought emerged - ___________Led by ______________(1908-1970) and ____________(1902-1987)OptimisticEmphasis on the unique qualities of humans: _______________________

  • Psychology Comes of Age as a Profession_________ psychology_________ psychologyWorld War IIClinical psychology receives _________ support

  • Renewed Interest in Physiology and Cognition__________ = mental processes involved in acquiring knowledgeApplication of scientific methods to studying ________ mental events__________ perspective - behavior explained in terms of physiological processes

  • Cultural Psychology:Recognizing Human Variation__________________ viewing ones own group as superior and as the standard for judging__________: middle and upper class white males studying middle and upper class white males1980s increased interest in how ________ factors influence behaviorGrowing global interdependenceIncreased cultural ________

  • Evolutionary Psychology:Human AdaptationsCentral premise: natural selection occurs for behavioral, as well as _________, characteristicsBuss, Daly & Wilson, Cosmides & Tooby 1980s and 1990sStudied ________ selection of mating preferences, jealousy, aggression, sexual behavior, language, decision making, ________, and developmentThought provoking perspective gaining in _________, but not without criticism

  • Positive Psychology____________ epiphanyHumanist concerns revisitedUses theory and research to better understand the positive, _______, and fulfilling aspects of human existencePositive __________ experiencesPositive individual _____Positive institutions and communities

  • Psychology Today:A Thriving Science and Profession__________ is the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the _________ knowledge of this science to practical problems.___________: Seven major areas________ Psychology: Four major areas

  • Figure 1.5 Membership in the American Psychological Association, 19002004

  • Figure 1.6 Employment of psychologists by setting

  • Figure 1.7 Major research areas in contemporary psychology

  • Figure 1.8 Principal professional specialties in contemporary psychology

  • Studying Psychology:Seven Unifying ThemesPsychology as a field of study:_________Theoretically _______Evolves in _____________ context_________:Determined by multiple causesShaped by cultural heritageInfluenced jointly by heredity and environmentPeoples experience of the world is highly ___________.