ch. 30 independence: india & latin america (1900–1949)

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  • Ch. 30 Independence: India & Latin America(19001949)

  • I. Africa

  • A. Colonial Africa:Africans forced to work in European-owned mines and plantations under harsh conditions for little or no pay

    Religious changes: both Christianity & Islam spread

    Colonialism provided little modernization:

    worsened public healthundermined the African familygave rise to large segregated cities

  • B. Early NationalistsNationalist leaders & movements little influence until after WW II

    Africans had served in Allied forcesthe African National Congress in South AfricaPan-Africanists

  • II. Indian Independence (19051947)

  • A. Land & PeopleIndian pop.: 250 mill. in 1900389 mill. 1941

    Indian society diverse:

    peasantswealthy property ownersurban workersover 30 languages (English for Western-educated)majority practice Hinduismlarge Muslim minority (Bengal province)

  • B. British RuleColonial India: ruled by viceroy & Indian Civil Service (ICS)

    A few thousand members of the ICS controlled all technology into India:

    for political controlto prevent economic development to maximize British profits

  • C. Indian NationalismBy 1900: most Indians accepted British rule

    But racism & discrimination inspired political groups:

    Hindus established the Indian National Congress (1885)Muslims founded the All-India Muslim League (1906)India had two independence movements

  • D. Mahatma Gandhi (18691948)English-educated lawyer

    Practiced law in South Africa & returned to India

    joined Indian National Congress

    3. Political ideas:

    Nonviolence: ahimsaThe search for soul truth: satyagraha

  • Gandhis LifeGandhi dressed & lived simply

    Love for the poor, the illiterate, and social outcasts

    Gandhi was a brilliant political strategist through tactician passive resistant demonstrations:

    80 mile Walk to the Sea to make salt (in violation of the governments salt monopoly)several fasts unto deathrepeated arrests & prison sentences

  • Mahatma Gandhi

  • E. Move To Independence1920s: British slowly give Indians control of:

    EducationThe economy

    Indians contributed heavily to the war effort

    3.Lack of industrialization

    But, some wealthy Indians who looked to the INC

  • F. Partition & Independence1940: Muhammad Ali Jinnah demands Muslim independence (to create Pakistan)

    1947: Indian independence & Partition of (India & East-West Pakistan)

    violence between Muslims & Hindus massive refugeesGandhi assassinated 1948