independence movements in africa, india, and latin america 1900-1949 chapter 30

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  • Independence Movements in Africa, India, and Latin America 1900-1949Chapter 30

  • Turn to the person next to you and discuss the following questions and write the answers down.What do you know about Africa?What do you know about India?What do you know about Latin America?

    Think of all questions in terms of the history, imperialism, and present times,

  • AfricaFew Europeans lived in Africa, but the continent was dominated politically and economically by Europeans during the 1800sDuring colonialism Africans turned to Christianity and Islam (Islam spread the fastest)

  • African Leaders for IndependenceMarcus Garvey and WEB Dubois in America pushed for the Back to Africa movement, considered Pan-AfricanistsAfrican National Congress in South AfricaAfter World War II Africans who had served in the military returned to Africa with new radical ideas for independence

  • Indian NationalismIndias fertile land caused the population to increase from 250 million in 1900 to 289 million in 1941Population increase led to environmental pressure, deforestation, declining farmlandSociety was divided by the Caste SystemMuslims and Hindus made up the predominant religions

  • British Rule in IndiaColonial India was led by a British Viceroy and the Indian Civil ServiceIndian National Congress formed in 1885 in support of independenceThe British attempted to suppress the push for Indian independence culminating with the Armritsar Massacre of 1919

  • Mahatma GandhiEnglish educated lawyer who started work in South AfricaReturned to India during WWI and joined the Indian National CongressSuccessfully led the Indian independence movement through non-violence

  • Indian Independence1920s the British slowly and reluctantly gave control of parts of India to the IndiansWWII divided India. The Indian National Congress opposed the war and a small amount joined the Japanese1940 the Muslims League leader Muhammad Ali Jinah demanded a country be created for Muslims (present day Pakistan)Independence of India lead to conflicts between Muslims and Hindus

  • The Mexican Revolution1821 a few wealthy Spanish families controlled 85% of Mexico1910 General Portifino Diaz had ruled for 30 yearsFrancisco Madera overthrew Diaz in 1911 only to be overthrown by General Huerta in 1913Emiliano Zapata led a peasant revolt in Mexico City while Poncho Villa organized armies in the northZapata was killed in 1919 and Villa was assassinated in 1923Constitutionalist took over after years of fighting and 2 million casualties.

  • Post Mexican Revolution 1920-1940President Obregon was assassinated in 1928Plutarco Elias Calles took over and founded the National Revolutionary Party renamed the Mexican Revolutionary Party by President Lazaro Cardenas in 19341940 Mexico was still a land of farmers with a poor industrial base but it had established a stable political system.

  • ArgentinaAfter refrigeration ships were invented Argentina began to export meat by 1900The government represented the oligarquia (wealthy land owners) who let foreign interests, mainly British, control industry.1943 Juan Peron established a government based on the German NazisHe supported rapid industrialization but was overthrown in 1952

  • Independence of BrazilBrazils elite controlled the coffee, cocoa, and rubber plantationWW I disrupted the trade and weakened the land owning classes.The Depression hit Brazil hard and Brazil like Europe turned to extreme governmentsGetulio Vargas staged a coup dtat and took over the government and industrialized Brazil.Abolished the constitution and made Brazil a Fascist state in 1938He was overthrown in 1954


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