cengel ch11

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  • 1. CHAPTER 11ThermodynamicProperty Relations

2. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 11-1The derivative of afunction at aspecified pointrepresents the slopeof the function atthat point.11-1 3. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 11-3Geometricrepresentation ofpartial derivative( / )y.11-2 4. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 11-4Geometric representation oftotal derivative dz for afunction z (x, y).11-3 5. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 11-5Geometricrepresentation of thedisturbance discussed inExample 112.11-4 6. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 11-6Demonstration ofthe reciprocityrelation for thefunction z + 2xy -3y2z = 0.11-5 7. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 11-8Maxwell relations areextremely valuable inthermodynamic analysis.11-6 8. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 11-9The slope of thesaturation curve ona P-T diagram isconstant at aconstant T or P.11-7 9. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 11-10The volumeexpansivity (also calledthe coefficient ofvolumetric expansion)is a measure of thechange in volume withtemperature atconstant pressure.11-8 10. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 11-13The development of anh = constant line on aP-T diagram.11-9 11. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 11-14Constant-enthalpylines of a substanceon a T-P diagram.11-10 12. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 11-16An alternativeprocess path toevaluate theenthalpy changes ofreal gases.11-11 13. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 11-17An alternativeprocess path toevaluate the entropychanges of realgases during process1-2.11-12