byzantine architecture

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BYZANTINE ARCHITECTUREUTLINET!ICS : UTLINET!ICS :NTRODUCTONHSTORCAL, GEOLOGCAL, CLMATC, RELGOUS, AND HSTORCAL BACKGROUNDCHARACTERSTC FEATURES - DOMES AND PENDENTVESEXAMPLES ST SERGUS AND BACCHUSEXAMPLES ST SOPHAASSGNMENT.GeographicaI Location GeographicaI LocationGeographicaI Conditions: GeographicaI Conditions: Byzantine is situated between Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea and forms a link to Europe and Asia by means of a narrow strip of water. This helped to expand commerce and trade to eastern parts of the Roman Empire and further to Greece, Asia Minor, Russia etc. The early name was Byzantion and was later Romanized to Byzantium. Later it was renamed to Constantinople after the ruler ConstantineGeoIogicaI Conditions: GeoIogicaI Conditions: They used the similar materials that were used by the Romans i.e. they continued the use of concrete. They also manufactured bricks for the dome construction. Marble was imported from other parts and used for ornamental work.3. CIimatic Conditions: CIimatic Conditions: They had flat roofs with small openings in places of hot weather and sheltered arcades surrounding the open courtyard.ReIigious Conditions: ReIigious Conditions: Constantine issued the free power to everybody to follow the religion of their choice. As a result of the rise of Christianity many churched were built. n the beginning they were of the Basillican Christian type but later the dome became the prevailing motif of Byzantine Chruch.East : CircuIar West : BasiIica CentraIized church (Byzantine) Mark specially sacred spot or to house a tomb or baptisteryseats for the faithful are bannedCombined the basilica's horizontal axis with the vertical accent of a dome Vertical Greek Linear church Congregational worship To include choir, seats for the faithful Horizontal Latinifferences in esign ifferences in esignHistoricaI Background: HistoricaI Background: By the end of the 5th century AD, Rome had completely declined t had been sacked twice and was then under occupation ts influence was significantly reduced and the mpetus for architectural innovation shifted to the Byzantine Empire This shift also marks the movement from early Christian civilization to the Byzantine civilization Under the Byzantine Emperor Justinian, the Byzantine style of architecture evolved His interest in church building led to the discovery of the groin vault and the evolution of the Byzantine styleCHARACTERISTICS CHARACTERISTICSCHARACTERISTICSESIGN CHARACTERISTICSESIGN Although it is impossible to identify two similar Byzantine churches, it is still possible to identify the basic characteristics of an ideal Byzantine church The attributes of the ideal church included: The use of a centralized church plan The use of surrounding isles The use of pendentives and dome on pendentives And the use of a complex program of interior structure, lighting and decoration to create fascinating interiorsCHARACTERISTICSESIGN CHARACTERISTICSESIGN The pendentive dome is derived by trimming the sides of a regular dome over a square plan as shown in A. The pendentive dome enables the transfer the total load of the dome to the four corners of a building, meaning that only the four corners need to be reinforced This allows the dome roof to be adapted for a square building as shown in BCHARACTERISTICSESIGN CHARACTERISTICSESIGN Additionally, the top of the pendentive dome can be trim to introduce another dome on top of it as shown in C The additional dome can further be raised to introduce a cylinder between the pendentive dome and the additional dome as in D Windows can then be introduced in the cylinder enabling architects to creating dazzling interior light effectsCHARACTERISTICSESIGN CHARACTERISTICSESIGN Placing of small domes round large central dome was very commonly used. Domes were constructed without centering with thin radiating brocks of light weight pumic stones to lessen the side thrust on the walls The external facades were decorated in various design patterns of brick work and marble Byzantines used marble columns decoratively as well as structurally to support galleries and semi circular arches Mouldings were rare. The interiors were radiant with beautiful pavement. Walls were covered with marble mosaics and fresco decoration. This style was devoid of sculpture and was completely decorative.EXAM!LES EXAM!LESST SERIGUS ANST SERIGUS AN BACCHUS,ISTANBUL BACCHUS,ISTANBUL t was built as a palace church between A.D. 527-536 t is based on the four-lobed alternative church plan of early Christian architecture The church in plan consist of an octagonal core set in a very loose rectangular form The form of the church was not a perfect squareST SERIGUS ANST SERIGUS AN BACCHUS,ISTANBUL BACCHUS,ISTANBUL The central space was covered by a dome The octagon of the central dome has a small but true pendentive dome This church was constructed very shortly before Hagia Sophia and was believed to be a experiment The dome, its adaptation to a squarish form, the use of pendentive and the lighting and decoration scheme in the interior gives it its Byzantine characteristicsHAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL Hagia Sophia or the church of the holy wisdom is the most accomplished master piece in the history of architecture The church was constructed in 532 A.D. by Emperor Justinian in Constantinople now stanbul Hagia Sophia was the greatest vaulted space without intermediate supports that has ever been built and it remained so throughout the history of the Byzantine EmpireHAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL ts architects were sidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles, professors of geometry at the University ofConstantinople The church provides an expert solution to the problem of how to place a dome on a square base The solution was to use pendantivesHAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL Hagia Sophia is covered by a central dome 102 feet (31 m) across, slightly smaller than the Pantheon's The dome seems rendered weightless by the unbroken arcade of arched windows under it, which help flood the colorful interior with light The dome is carried on pendentives The weight of the dome passes through the pendentives to four massive piers at the cornersHAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL Between them the dome seems to float upon four great arches These four concave triangular sections of masonry solved the problem of setting the circular base of a dome on a rectangular base The church form is a combination of centralized and longitudinal structure Longitudinal direction is defined by domes to the east and westHAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBULHAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL - - !LAN !LANHAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBULHAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBULHAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL - -SECTIN SECTINHAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL Thus a hierarchy of dome-headed elements build up to create a vast oblong interior crowned by the main dome, a sequence never seen before in antiquity Of great artistic importance was its decorated interior with mosaics and marble pillars and coverings The combination of interior decoration with lights flooding from its domes creates a glittering internal environmentHAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL Hagia sophia dominated church architecture after the 6th century AD For over 900 years it was the seat of the Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople and a principal setting for imperial ceremonies Hagia Sophia was converted to a mosque at the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks under Sultan Mohammad in 1453 ts rich figurative mosaics were covered with plaster and replaced by slamic motifsHAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL t was for almost 500 years the principal mosque of stanbul Hagia Sophia served as model for many of the great Ottoman mosques of Constantinople such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, and the Rustem Pasha MosqueAfter continuing as a mosque for many years, it was in 1934 turned by Turkish authorities into the Hagia Sophia MuseumHAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBULHAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBULHAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL

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