Buddhist Pilgrimage New Edition 2009

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<ul><li><p>Published for free distribution </p><p>Buddhist Pilgrimage </p><p>ew Edition 2009 </p><p>Chan Khoon San </p></li><li><p>The Gift of excels all gifts. </p><p> Dhamma </p><p>ISB: 983#40876#0#8 </p><p> !"#</p><p>#!$"#</p><p>%&amp;'(#</p><p>All commercial rights reserved. </p><p>) # </p><p>#*+</p><p> in its entirety Dhamma </p><p>#</p><p>ew Cover Design </p><p>,-#.</p><p>,/#0</p><p>+</p><p>#1santisukha2</p><p>.</p><p>Mahaparinibbana.</p><p>#3##.</p><p>.#4#</p><p>).##+</p><p>Printed in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia by: </p><p>566,.</p><p>789:&amp;)%;</p><p>784&amp;5</p><p>:'7:'7 0:'$= </p></li><li><p>DEDICATIO </p><p>#+##</p><p> , ''8#</p><p>###</p><p>##.+</p><p>6#</p><p>##</p></li><li><p>+</p><p>PREFACE TO EW EDITIO 2009 EE.!F#</p><p> , # #+#</p><p>#+.)</p><p> ## 5 </p><p>##&gt;+</p><p>.##++.</p><p> ) Stupa *6@ !+ </p><p>@ B % .@ </p><p>)@- 4+ %@ # 5</p><p>!@)6+)6@4.%</p><p>5 ) ## .F </p><p>0)#</p><p># . </p><p>B##+Parinibbana#</p><p>E9.F).F!)-,,,$$=</p><p>)#,+#.</p><p>%!)Dhamma </p><p>#</p><p>.</p><p>#</p><p>+ ; ( 9</p><p>.#+#3#5</p><p> . &gt;+</p><p>#G.</p><p>Mahaparinibbana.</p><p>+# + # #</p><p>#*</p></li><li><p>+</p><p>0#</p><p>. </p><p>&amp;3!###,.</p><p>F</p><p>+</p><p> 6 + .</p><p>D</p><p>#+F##</p><p>/#+!,</p><p>#</p><p> # ) . !</p><p>##</p></li><li><p>+</p><p>+ , &gt;# B . </p><p> Dhamma</p><p>.,5#/</p><p>#)4Dhamma</p><p> B 5 + # </p><p>Sasana </p><p> . # </p><p> , ++ . Sasana # </p><p>G ! ! + !</p><p># + )+ </p><p>#</p><p>,##5+</p><p>#)4!#;</p><p>5</p><p>.&gt;</p><p>+</p><p>0# ) # # Arahants</p><p> #</p><p>.#*</p><p># + </p><p> .I / + </p><p># # Arahants ## )</p><p>## ; 5</p><p> . + , &gt;</p><p>#B.+!:8</p><p>!; + + </p><p>.####</p><p> J </p><p>''&gt;8 ) &amp; 3 !# </p><p> F </p><p>J + J</p><p>###</p><p>6#</p><p>&amp;!#!,#</p><p>###</p><p> 6+#</p><p>#,</p><p>#.</p><p>#6 </p></li><li><p>+</p><p>ACKOWLEDGEMETS </p><p>,++</p><p>##</p><p>&gt;</p></li><li><p>+</p><p>,!</p><p>''&gt;8#&gt;</p><p>#</p><p>6B,#</p><p> + # # </p><p> # / +</p><p>#</p><p>FORGIVEESS OF FAULTS </p><p>4 + </p><p>#</p><p> # # </p><p> + D</p><p> ## </p><p> +</p><p> + </p><p>#,</p><p>+</p><p>.DhammaSangha</p><p>Kyena vc cittena Pamdena maya katam </p><p>Accayam khama me bhante Bhri#paa tathgataG </p><p>, # </p><p> + </p><p>+ D5GD#5C </p><p>REJOICIG AD SHARIG OF MERITS </p><p>5 Dhammadana +</p><p> 5 #G</p><p>SadhuGSadhuGSadhuG</p><p>)'</p></li><li><p>0</p><p>ABOUT THE AUTHOR </p><p>Bro. Chan Khoon San 8)':!)</p><p>#0#</p><p> 5 # . B &amp; D</p><p>##</p><p>'7: '7( , '78 ?+ 5 </p><p> .# 1*2 '( </p><p>'( ''7 -#</p><p>).5## </p><p>;</p><p> # ChanmyaySayadaw </p><p>Bhaddanta JanakabhivamsaA5</p><p>A#</p><p>5+#+;</p><p>#</p><p>A* #</p><p>#</p><p>+.#;</p><p>.&gt;.</p><p>#.</p></li><li><p>0</p><p>COTETS </p><p>!#%&amp;' + </p><p>)# +</p><p>)) 0</p><p>PART I:Significance, HistoryPeople </p><p>5)#! </p><p>)# 4+ </p><p>4+!#1Paramis2 =</p><p>=&amp;!#! =</p><p>:. :</p><p>$)-?#! $</p><p>&amp;3!#! 7</p><p>5))#* (</p><p>= !! 8</p><p>:-#. * </p><p>$-#CC*L $</p><p>74#4., $</p><p>(-++., =</p><p>()%4., =</p><p>(!.-++, ==</p><p>8?*Sasana ='</p><p>8&amp;A ='</p><p>8-#;5 :</p><p>8=#*D. :</p><p>8:!</p><p>);5 :=</p><p>8$&amp;5 :=</p><p>875 ::</p><p>8()#/3 ::</p><p>884#,* :(</p><p>8' #!+Puja :'</p><p>8%4C.)B $</p><p>8D # $</p><p>8?#,J $</p><p>8=-++.Sasana% $=</p><p>8:D%Bhikkhus $:</p><p>8$!</p><p>)? $7</p><p>'B4.) $8</p></li><li><p>0</p><p>'.F $8</p><p>' ?# 7</p><p>'=.F3 7</p><p>':.FK 7=</p><p>'$&gt;;).+ 7:</p><p>'75. 77</p><p>'()#?#142 78</p><p>'8.#D?# 7'</p><p>''..D#. (</p><p>'C4+. (</p><p>'3 4)M9.N (</p><p>%!, (=</p><p>PART II:Four Holy Places of Pilgrimage (8</p><p>B.#. ('</p><p>*# ('</p><p>-## ('</p><p>=*#.# ('</p><p>:D6#, 8</p><p>$+ 8=</p><p>7-4+ 88</p><p>.!#.F&amp; '</p><p>*# '</p><p>-## '</p><p>=*#.# '</p><p>:)45.# '=</p><p>$D6#, '$</p><p>=!#.F =</p><p>=*# =</p><p>=-## =</p><p>==*#.# :</p><p>=:D6#, 7</p><p>:!#.F!</p><p>) </p><p>:*# </p><p>:-## </p><p>:=*#.# =</p><p>:$D6#, 7</p><p> PART III:Four Places of Principal Miracles </p><p>+!#5# </p><p>*# </p></li><li><p>0</p><p>-## </p><p>=*#.# =</p><p>:D6#, $</p><p>!#4#*+ '</p><p>*# '</p><p>-## '</p><p>=*#.# '</p><p>:!&amp;+ =</p><p>$D6#, =</p><p>7.! ==</p><p>=-6!#4&amp;% =$</p><p>=*# =$</p><p>=-## =$</p><p>==*#.# =7</p><p>=:D6#, =(</p><p>=$-%5+ :</p><p>:;!#5D*. :</p><p>:*# :</p><p>:-## :</p><p>:=*#.# :=</p><p>::D6#,; :$</p><p>:$!;# :8</p><p>$9.F). $=</p><p>$!. $=</p><p>$. $7</p><p>$=. $(</p><p>$:. $8</p><p>PART IV: otable Shrines along the Pilgrimage Route 7</p><p>&amp;+StupaD6#; 7</p><p>D6#-+#. 7</p><p>4+. 7</p><p>=-Stupa.F! 7$</p><p>: Stupas 77</p><p>!+.B5 78</p><p>*# 78</p><p>-## 78</p><p>=5#C 7'</p><p>:Stupa5 7'</p><p>=CFStupa ( </p></li><li><p>0</p><p>=*# (</p><p>=*#.# (</p><p>==-## (</p><p>=:D6#, (</p><p>:B%)! Stupa (=</p><p>:*# (=</p><p>:)!B (=</p><p>:=% (:</p><p>$)Stupa -#*6 ($</p><p>$*# ($</p><p>$-## ($</p><p>7KSangha </p><p> ((</p><p>7*# ((</p><p>7-## ((</p><p>7=*#.# (8</p><p>7:)5 ('</p><p>(4)-# 8</p><p>(4.F 8</p><p>83Stupa# 8</p><p>8*# 8</p><p>8*#.# 8</p><p>8=D6#, 8=</p><p>PART V: Organizing a Buddhist Pilgrimage to India 87</p><p>+!!#, 8(</p><p>5-/ 8(</p><p>+)# 8(</p><p>=.+, 88</p><p>!DanaD</p><p>Sangha 8'</p><p>=,+, '</p><p>=+; '</p><p>=,#&amp;0 '</p><p>==*!# '</p><p>=:</p><p> '</p><p>=$4 '</p><p>:4#!!# '</p><p>$5B#!!# '=</p><p>7!3,''&gt;8 ':</p><p>(. $</p><p>8-6#5 8</p></li><li><p>PART I </p><p>Significance, History, People </p><p>Contents </p><p> !"!#</p><p>$ %%"!#&amp;'</p><p>( ))*+</p><p>, --+</p><p>. /0 12#3</p><p>4 '5)"""6</p><p>78+</p></li><li><p>1. Mental Aspects of a Pilgrimage 1 </p><p>1.1 Journey of Faith and Devotion </p><p> 9! 2 !</p><p> "! 2 :: 6</p><p>% 2 ! --2 "- </p><p>!*"2</p><p>!2!!6</p><p>"!-!A pilgrimage is ajourney to asacred </p><p>place as an act of faith and devotion + 2 </p><p>saddha</p><p>"2Dhamma </p><p>Sangha+"""*-*</p><p> 2 saddha </p><p> " </p><p>purification of the mind</p><p>'!*-</p><p>9!062 </p><p>! - " </p><p>*;'</p><p>--**"2*</p><p> 2 * 3 </p><p>**! Mahaparinibbana2 6 </p><p>*-!*--</p><p>!2"!;2</p><p>+ *!2 * * ! </p><p>'23</p><p>3*-</p><p>*</p><p> ; ' </p><p>2Ven. Buddhaghosa-</p><p>!2Ven. Dhammapala2</p></li><li><p>32#!2</p><p>1.2 Development of Perfections (Paramis) </p><p>' an act of </p><p>renunciation*"! - puja? + 2 !</p><p>*;-"</p><p>*kamma.+2</p><p> - &gt;Paramis? *</p><p>*</p><p> 9! -2*! ! </p><p>9!!6--;</p><p>! 3 productive of joy 6</p><p>:;kamma!=+</p><p> 62 *!2 *2 ! </p><p>- "! 9 ; * </p><p>1.3 Taking the Eight Precepts during Pilgrimage </p><p> - !2 </p><p>";'"!-</p><p>sila ! ' " ! </p><p>**"</p></li><li><p>'!*: 6 Eight Precepts</p><p>Uposatha Sila!#!</p><p>2!@5"2!231</p><p>#*-:2!</p><p>-9!26</p><p>"!6&gt;"</p><p>"-"!-?</p><p>Buddha did not advocate vegetarianismSangha</p><p> !2 sila?</p><p>A2!-</p><p>'</p><p>"-</p><p>!*</p><p>greater degree of restraint of the senses must be exercised </p><p>1.4 Buddhist Fellowship </p><p> * ! -- </p><p>2 " </p><p> ' * </p><p>;'</p><p>"#!</p><p>"*!-*A-**6</p><p>9!2"*-!</p><p>!6**</p><p>*metta&gt;-:6?2mudita&gt;-9!?2!</p><p> - ' " </p><p>performance of meritorious actionstogether *</p><p> -"* </p><p>*- !! </p><p>!9!#!**</p><p>"!!**</p><p>*! +2! - 6</p></li><li><p>32#!2$</p><p>1.5 Arousing Religious Urgency during Pilgrimage 2 </p><p>32#!</p><p>Samvejaniyathana2*arouse awareness and</p><p>apprehension'6</p><p>6 ! ! </p><p>&gt;samvega?"! * "</p><p>Parinibbana@B+2bhikkhus2+!@+</p><p> Accomplish all your </p><p>duties with mindfulness. </p><p>' #! * * </p><p>2DhammaArahant SanghaA</p><p> " ! ; </p><p>5"2 !2 3 </p><p>+2 Parinibbana 1'! </p><p>Arahants 2 - </p><p>A Arahants - </p><p>" 62 </p><p> ' the world of living beings &gt;sattaloka? </p><p> " "9 </p><p> 5* </p><p>+ " !-2</p><p>religious urgency&gt;samvega?8"</p><p>C8""2</p><p>5;Parinibbana2--+"</p><p>stupasviharas-</p><p>'*".2777stupas""!1</p><p>6.2777):6"</p><p>"!6-!'!</p><p>--</p><p>8+!-</p><p>-"!</p><p>- ' " * conditioned world</p><p>&gt;sankhara6?the natural world&gt;okasaloka?</p><p> " "9 </p><p> 5* </p><p>+ " !-2</p><p> ! 8" </p><p>C8""2</p></li><li><p>(</p><p>2. Eight Great Places of Pilgrimage 3, 4 </p><p>+*/;6*</p><p>""6#Parinibbana,</p><p>5 2*</p><p>-6*feelings ofreverence%D</p><p> Lumbini: B# Tathagata * "E '22 </p><p>-6*</p><p>-F</p><p>" Buddhagaya:B#Tathagata"!2</p><p>3E '22 </p><p> - 6 * </p><p>-F</p><p> Sarnath:B#TathagataBodhi pallanka?Bodhgaya2</p><p> '*Dhamma )62Sarnath2</p><p> !Sankasia</p><p>)#-2</p><p> " "</p><p>&gt;Gandhakuti?G-Savatthi.</p><p>:ote: '"</p><p> A 2 - +</p><p>*2;"25"28'</p><p> + ' @</p><p>!&gt;!?21&gt;1?29&gt;9?2</p><p>3-&gt;3-?/&gt;/?</p><p>2.1 Mental Attitude when Approaching the Holy Shrines </p><p>+-C</p><p>'*</p><p>!2*'</p><p>King of Dhamma &gt;Dhammaraja? </p><p> * 6 # </p><p>6</p><p>-6-</p><p>6"One should walk</p><p>mindfully2**-</p><p> " ! - </p><p>*2**</p><p> Dhammaraja ! * !</p><p>&gt;puja?"!6'*"!-</p><p> / 2Dhamma</p><p>Sangha'*!*</p><p>-!6*feelings ofreverence</p></li><li><p>.</p><p>3. Famous Pilgrims of the Past 5, 6, 7 </p><p>' 6* </p><p>Atthamahathanani Emperor Asoka </p><p>- Bdhammayatra &gt;dhamma </p><p>6 + "! +: ?2 2 I:Ching2 "</p><p>*!!*2-*</p><p>* * * -2 </p><p>26A2</p><p>62!!</p></li><li><p>32#!24</p><p>'*Fa Hsien#6-!*6</p><p>%" '662</p><p> - 2 - </p><p>**#1</p><p>8 + </p></li><li><p>7</p><p>4. Record of the Buddhist Country by Fa Hsien8 </p><p>Fa Hsien2* *Kung2* " %:I</p><p>-:IShansi Province</p><p> " 2 </p><p>3 -</p><p>2"6'!2</p><p>!**</p><p>%*2</p><p>2</p><p>2""!@B+-</p><p> ! * ! J *2 " " +</p><p>*"-*!'*!+</p><p> 6F ' - * - </p><p>%2*"</p><p>""!</p><p>+)442*!:-2#-+*</p><p>*62!@Hui?king2Tao?ching, Hui?ying, Hui?</p><p>yu 2 6 Vinaya </p><p>3Chang?an&gt;K?2 !-"!</p><p>!Chang?yeh2!:*</p><p>L7.6?*26</p><p>2!"!</p><p>Shen?shen &gt;5?2Lop :or'6!</p><p> * 77762</p><p>"3/Hinayana &gt;:ote 1?</p><p>"2!-*$</p><p>!2""!*Tarim-2-</p><p>!Karashahr :!Korla'!</p></li><li><p>32#!2</p><p>!6"!Pao?yun2*-"!</p><p> Hami Turfan % #; </p><p>12</p><p>:!;*6!!'</p><p>9!!1:</p><p> *2#!9!</p><p>*A2**</p><p>'9!</p><p> - &lt; '!* </p><p> - ! " ! </p><p>2*Khotan'!-</p><p> * </p><p> ! * ! ! </p><p> * " * </p><p>2*"!</p><p> 12 *!:- ! </p><p>Yarkand2 * ! ! " </p><p>9!*!:-!*62!-</p><p>Kie?sha &gt;Kashgar?2 Tsung?ling A</p><p>&gt;:ote 2?2 *Pancavassika Parisa</p><p>M= "!2 -:!! - "! 1</p><p>62 * Sangha</p><p>5- 1:2 ! 2</p><p>6 2 6 ':2</p><p> 9! * ! - 2</p><p> #"@</p><p>BThe mountainside is simply a stone wall standing up 10,000 feet. </p><p>Looking down, the sight is confused and there is no sure foothold. </p><p>Below is a river called Sintuho (Indus). In old days, men had cut </p><p>away the rocks to make a way down and spread out side ladders, of </p><p>which there are 700 steps to pass. When these are negotiated, the </p><p>river is crossed by a hanging rope bridge. The two banks of the river </p><p>are something less than 80 paces apart.F</p><p> -2 ! - ! Udyana2</p><p>*ChitralSwat Valley </p><p>!:orth Pakistan +*2</p><p>*-"3/'</p></li><li><p> 2#:62':#I* </p><p>:agarahara &gt;G"? ! - :*</p><p>&gt;:ote 3?Gopala :aga-6"</p><p>Hadda *##I0!</p><p> : % -2 ! 9! Swat </p><p> * - ! - Gandhara &gt;</p><p>"*'66 ?2!-</p><p>Peshawar stupa Kaniska:"*</p><p> &gt;:ote 4? # ! ! :! 3:6</p><p>* ! :"* A </p><p>#;2#:!2*-!8</p><p> * 2 </p><p>* :! 3:6 * #; 2</p><p>#:!2*:"*</p><p> # * ** 8 A </p><p>" !Hadda-vihara ;</p><p>6:" :agarahara2-viharas</p><p>;sanghati &gt;"?</p><p>8-!*#*</p><p>*2':#:6</p><p>! ** %-2 !</p></li><li><p>32#!2</p><p>*6'2Kapilavatthu2</p><p>* 6 2* ! " '* ! </p><p> 6 " ! '</p><p>*--*</p><p>1-2-Kusinara2</p><p>; Mahaparinibbana. + ! 2 * *</p><p>"*2**</p><p> 6- *2 !* Vesali </p><p>Pataliputta2 Magadha 2 !</p><p>- :alanda Rajagaha2 * # </p><p>Gijjhakuta *2 2</p><p>*</p><p> 2 !*Buddhagaya2</p><p>;2)6 Sarnath* </p><p> 32 Varanasi ! Kosambi </p><p>" 2 * ! - Ghositarama</p><p>! 2Tao?ching 6 </p><p>+"-</p><p>"!6+*)!</p><p>*6* </p><p>#2 9* 6 </p><p> 6 " 9!2 *</p><p>" " ! * !</p><p># * " " ! "! 6 </p><p>G-!#!36</p><p>!'* - </p><p>!2-Tamralipti&gt;'6</p><p>% ?2 * * ! ! </p></li><li><p>Anuradhapura26</p><p> * 6 6</p><p>#- " 6*</p><p>#2</p><p>+-!"!)2-</p><p> # 6 - </p><p> * - Yepoti &gt;G-?2 </p><p>#2*!" </p><p>-!*</p><p> - I2 # 6 "</p><p>"Canton "!2</p><p> ' * * </p><p>""3&gt;6?#"</p><p>6 ! </p><p>56!dayaka &gt;?*"-</p><p> ! -! ! * </p><p> 2 * C * : </p><p> * 6 *-</p><p>! 2 ! - 5:</p><p> :1***2</p><p>! ! C ! Tsing?Chow2 </p><p> Shantung Peninsula I </p><p>2#!*</p></li><li><p>32#!2$</p><p>5. Record of the Western World by Hsan Tsang8 </p><p>' H';)!! %%; "9-</p><p> *- "6 "! </p><p>Hsan Tsang"9! </p><p>+3": "6)(4:($+"</p><p>* 3:!:6'-</p><p>% - !6!2*</p><p>-"'/*</p><p>%#*+6Vinaya2</p><p>#&amp;';+**</p><p> * " </p><p>%- *"!2</p><p>Changan &gt;K?)(4</p><p>*!:-# Gansu 2Lanzhou</p><p>*6*! %Dunhuang</p><p>'6"36</p><p>Yumen Guan &gt;G? Gobi2</p><p>-Hami'2*Turfan2</p><p> Uighur !2 "! " </p><p>!;2#&amp;'</p><p>#&amp;'2Kara?</p><p>shahr2*-Kucha</p><p>Kucha* * 2 </p><p>&lt; ' * *</p><p>" + * -</p><p>-Sarvastivadin 6!</p><p> 2 * * </p><p> : + 12 6</p><p>"- M="!2! "!1</p><p>62*"!*Sangha-!-</p><p>!A!2#&amp;'**</p><p> 2"47 2 *</p><p>!-!*2</p><p>9!Aksu*!Tian Shan</p></li><li><p>(</p><p>2 Lake Issyk Kul Kyrgyzstan</p><p>'62$77"--2</p><p>*-(77=6</p><p># * -! Chu </p><p>river 1!!C 6: Myn?bulak2 6* </p><p> B' F - **2 '</p><p>*Taras !:ujkendChatkal range2</p><p> - Tashkent Eastern Uzbekistan2 * * </p><p>':6&gt;#'6?'</p></li><li><p>32#!2,</p><p>'"!2*</p><p> *"*"'*</p><p> *"656-</p><p>3 #&amp; ' * BamiyanBuddha 2</p><p>"$$$2-:N</p><p>$)26""C</p><p>#*</p><p>- &gt;+ "!2 </p><p>Talibans of Afghanistan! </p><p>772**?</p><p>- *2 #&amp; ' #</p><p>1 Siah Koh 2 - ! </p><p>Kapisa + " * G"?#!</p><p>"*6'stupas*#</p><p>- :aga Gopala -2* </p><p> 2</p><p>*"!</p><p>naga &gt;? vihara 6:" 2 </p><p> 6 * "! 6 !</p><p>*</p><p> 82 Gandhara "! Khyber </p><p>Pass # * - * *</p><p>"'*"2 **</p><p>2 -* * * " ! ' stupas *</p><p>!!2Purushapura&gt;*?2*</p><p>!!*!!6#*-2Deva </p><p> " " * ! </p><p> *</p></li><li><p>.</p><p>#&amp;'2BCenturies ago, there was a treacherous </p><p>Hun king from Sakala named Mihirakula, who killed his benefactor, the king of Kashmir and usurped the throne. Then he came to </p><p>Gandhara and killed its ruler in an ambush. He exterminated the </p><p>royal family and chief minister, overthrew the stupas and destroyed </p><p>the monasteries, altogether one thousand six hundred foundationsF</p><p>'-2-Udyana2</p><p> # *2 </p><p> ! * </p><p>!2 *6"*</p><p>*-!*-29!</p><p>Takkasila &gt;*?# 2 * </p><p> - "! # 66O!</p><p>!'662*Kashmir*</p><p>-'* </p><p>-6+62</p><p>2*12"!</p><p> stupas </p><p>Srinagar2 #&amp; ' * ! &gt;) (:(? !</p><p>!!!</p><p> 12 - Jammu </p><p>Sakala &gt;365?2 6</p><p> 6 *</p><p>-362*"""!"</p><p>"--2*2""!</p><p>Lahore2*'*!!</p><p>Chinapati. +)(2-Jalandhar</p><p>Sutlej -2 Satadru Paryartra " - </p><p>Mathura*!2</p><p>:2</p><p> 1 6 </p><p>3--6Upagupta2**</p><p>* 2*!*!*</p><p>6 - 2 </p><p>Yamuna- Kuru?kshetra ('*?2 ! </p><p># !"* "* </p><p>-"1-2*"-</p></li><li><p>32#!24</p><p>'*!*"-6</p><p>" Deva * " -</p><p>'-2***</p><p>2 - * * </p><p> # - Sankasia * </p><p>* ; #-8"?'****</p><p>*"!Deva *"</p><p> * -2#&amp;'*</p><p>#-*- *</p><p>- !2 " ** *! </p><p>-#*Kosambi-Ghositarama2</p><p>*"2*</p><p>"!*-*1"</p><p>- *2 - Sravasti -</p><p>Maheth2 * * 3 stupa 6 </p><p>6; " stupa </p><p>Saheth2Jetavana3-2</p><p>*Kapilavastu236!6PLumbini2</p><p>" PRamagama2 * "* </p><p> ! !P Kusinara2 ;</p><p>Mahaparinibbana'-$7722</p><p>Varanasi2 ! #'*"</p><p>! * 6 " - </p><p>Deva * " 2 ! 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The rare and valuable products of </p><p>some distant regions are stored here in great quantitiesF</p><p># - ! * * !</p><p>2SthiramatiGunamati</p><p>-*2 Surashtra Gurjjara "</p><p>- Ujjain2 Avanti ' * </p><p> " !*! ! </p><p>6-*2-Sindh**</p><p>-</p><p>"!6</p><p>3!3'-+2</p><p>-Multan#"-6**'</p><p>*22</p><p>:alanda -+</p><p>682#&amp;'-!!</p><p>! "</p><p>=!2*6*</p><p> * ' 6 2</p><p>Kumara?raja2" ;"!-</p><p> Kamarupa )(%#&amp;'*</p><p>2 1:9 - -2 1</p><p>Harsha Vardhana, " 6 </p><p>192 6 "6 </p><p>2""#/</p><p>-#&amp;'Kanauj*-6</p><p>"!"62"!6</p><p> *!- 2 *6#&amp;</p><p>'* H5 ); </p></li><li><p>32#!2</p><p>*6</p><p>#;**</p><p>6 # </p><p>29-</p><p>6"!62'6</p><p> " +</p><p>2#6Prayag2*</p><p> M= - * - *! *</p><p>--!2*</p></li><li><p>!

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