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Ethics presentation for doctoral studies course


  • 1. Buddhist Ethics By Mohsen Omar and Sara Emami

2. Buddhism In General Known as middle way of wisdom and compassionA 2500 year old tradition that began in India and spread as well to the Far EastAphilosophy, religion, and spiritual practice followed by more than 400 million people. Basedon the teachings of the Buddha. 3. Philosophy or Religion? Religion upholds:Buddhism is: Authority Empirical Ritual Scientific Speculation Pragmatic Tradition Therapeutic Grace Egalitarian Mystery Individual 4. History of Prince Siddhartha Gautama ---->Buddha Born Siddhartha Gautama of noble caste in India, 563 B.C.E.Raised in great luxury to be a kingAt age 29 rejected the life of luxury to seek enlightenment and the solution to sufferingFollowed a strict ascetic lifestyle for six yearsAt age 35 rejected the extreme ascetics, sat in meditation, achieved Nirvana.Spent the remaining 45 years of his life teaching others how to achieve the peace of mind he had achieved Nirvana 5. The Buddhas Teachings/Philosophy The Buddha approaches the problems of life as would a therapist confronting an illness: The Four Noble Truths Symptoms The human life involves continual sufferingDiagnosis - The cause of suffering is self-centered desire & attachmentsPrognosis - The solution is to eliminate desire and attachment, thus achieving Nirvana (extinction).Prescription - The way to Nirvana is through the Eight-Fold Path 6. Buddhist Metaphysics Dukkha: we experience life as suffering/dissatisfaction. Physical, Mental, Conditioned statesAnitya: everything in this world is characterized by impermanence. The nature of the world is transitory. An ever-changing self trying to cling to a world in continual flux. The theory of dependent origination. 7. Buddhist Metaphysics Anatta:the self is impermanent. There is no eternal, unchanging, autonomous self. Worktoward eroding and eventually eliminating the idea of permanent individuality.Man consists of the 5 Skandhas (Components) Form, Sensations, Perception, Mental Formations, Consciousness Continuity of memory 8. Theory of the Universe Reincarnation Chain reaction of influence not substance - No soul is passed on. A flame being passed from candle to candle.Karma has allowed for the progression of the universe. There is no unmoved mover behind movement. One thing passes, conditioning the appearance of the next in a series of cause and effects. 9. Unreflective and Right Association Unreflective random, controlled by circumstance and impulse. You see yourself as an individual ego competing with other egos.Right Association forming good habits to release you from craving and desiring. You do not see yourself as separate self apart from others. 10. The Eight-fold Path To cultivate behavior that is not motivated by the idea of self. Ethical Conduct universal love and compassion or all living beings. Right Speech, Right Action, Right LivelihoodMental Discipline meditative realization of the true nature of self and the world. Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right ConcentrationWisdom correct knowledge about reality. Right Thought, Right Understanding 11. Nirvana Nirvana is beyond definitive description. Achieving Nirvana is to escape from the cycle of death and rebirth as well as the cycle of suffering caused by attachments.Once Gautama Buddha died, after 80 years of life in this world, having achieved Nirvana and teaching multitudes his way of life, he ceased to exist as a distinct being. Buddhism is non-theistic: Buddha is not the Buddhist God he is simply a revered teacher. 12. Questions regarding Ethics Whatethical values do you see present in Buddhism? Whatconnections have you made between Buddhism and the other philosophical theories we have studied? Pleaseprovide examples


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