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DESCRIPTIONBuddhist Culture. Hindu. Buddhist. Polished sandstone “Lotiform” Form of a lotus Lotus symbol of divinity Horizontal wheel Cycle of life, death, rebirth Lions = The Buddha. The Lions of Sarnath Pillar capital c. 242 - 232 BCE. Buddhist Figurative Art. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Polished sandstoneLotiformForm of a lotusLotus symbol of divinityHorizontal wheel Cycle of life, death, rebirthLions = The BuddhaThe Lions of Sarnath Pillar capitalc. 242 - 232 BCE3Buddhist Figurative ArtEnabled the beginning of Buddha worshipFrontalHarmony between individual and universe
5Standing BuddhaAnthropomorphic (human)
Northern India: Greek/Roman influenceNote togaKnot on head
Seated Buddha image formata. symmetrical posture=harmony, perfection, enlightenmentb. Lotus position=discipline, strength
On rightSouthern versionDraped in thin mantelLong ear lobesUrna: whorl of hair between brows represented by a dotMudra: symbolic hand gesture
9Monophonic or Polyphonic?MonophonicWhat instruments do you hear?Drum, bells, gongWavelike? Fluid? Just like?Plainchant (Gregorian) ChantHow would you describe the tone of the singer?NasallyBuddhist Chant
Buddhist ChantAnonymous: Morning prayersThe presence of Buddhist practice in geographically and culturally disparate parts of Asia has created a complex set of religious and artistic traditions. Each is distinct in its particular characteristics yet related in devotional purpose and textual origins. Buddhist chant is the continuing manifestation of one of the worlds oldest continuously practiced musical traditions. It is believed that disciples of the Buddha were called to chant the teaching (Dharma) shortly after his death. The body of Buddhist teaching was preserved for centuries through oral tradition, the memorization of which was possibly aided by chant formulas.Like the other examples of ancient religious or sacred chanting, Buddhist chant is also monophonic and fluid in its rhythmic style, typically determined by accentual patterns associated with the language of the chant. Typical instruments used in East Asian cultures include bells, cymbals, drums, gongs, flutes, and wood blocks. Also characteristic of this style of chanting is the nasal tonal quality of the voice, which is common in many types of Asian secular and sacred musical contexts.Discussion1. Compare the examples of sacred chant from the various religious traditions (Christian, Buddhist, and Muslim). What similarities and differences exist? What aspects of the function of sacred chant account for their similarities? What cultural features or traditions account for differences?
10Lama Chpa: A Buddhist Tantric CelebrationMonks of Dreprung Loseling MonasterySazhi Pokyi: This Fragrant Earth
Monks of Drepung Loseling Monastery based in Atlanta recorded these sacred chants. These selections are clear and the studio quality is excellent. Although the Lama Chopa is a single piece, it is comprised of 14 sections. It begins with arousing the inner meditative mind of the performer and the invocation of the forces of goodness from the ten directions. It then goes on through the stages of worship and meditation, and eventually concludes with a dedication to world peace. This ritual was written by the First Panchen Lama.
The Great Stupa3rd Century BCEMore than one functionReceptacle for relicsSymbol of death of BuddhaCosmic diagram: the world mountain with 4 cardinal pointsToken of Buddhism in general
Yangon, ThailandAngkor Thom, Kampuchea13
Bodnath StupaKathmandu, Nepal14
Potala was the palace of the Dalai Lamas and political center of Tibet from the 1600s until 1949 when the Dalai Lama fled to India17