Buddhist art (History) (2ndSem)

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1. Vedic Period Aryans migrated from the W (Caspain and Black Sea) into NW part of India (around the banks of the Indus and its tributaries) Oral tradition and sacrificial rituals, soma drink Contains prays, melodies, formulas and incantations Caste system (a hierarchical order classified by professions): Brahmin (priests), Kstriya (Kings), Visya (Merchants) and Sudra (Untouchables) Vedic means knowledge dated between 1200-400 BCE. Rgveda Veda of Verses is the oldest Samaveda Veda of Melodies Yajurveda Veda of Ritual Formulas Atharvaveda (name after a rsis) 2. Vedic Gods Devas (gods or divine powers), Asuras (demons) 33 in numbers Divided into 3 classes: celestial, atmospheric, and terrestrials (sky, atmosphere or earth) Surya (Sun God) Indra (Thunder God)-The highest Agni (God of Fire) Vishnu 3. Buddhist Architecture King Asoka Sanchi Stupa Bhaja Cave Kali Cave 4. King Asoka of Maurya period Maurya ca. 322-185 BCE (the Greeks held the power in the Gandhara region until the death of Alexander the great in 323) King Asoka 272-231 BCE; solidified the N and Central India region by a bloody campaigns and later converted to Buddhism. Pillars of Law (Dharma-sthambani)-with inscription of propaganda and Buddhist teachings Asokas column at Sarnath-site associated with the First Sermon; addorsed lions symbolizing the spreading of the Buddhas teachings. Lion represents Sakyamunis clan. wheel (cakra) symbolizes the turning of the wheel of law; animals (elephant, bull, horse, and lion) 5. 3.4 Lion capital of King Asoka; Polished sandstone, Sarnath 6. Bull capital from Rampurva, c. 250 BCE 7. Great Stupa, Sanchi, c. 250 BCE; enlarged and renovated c. 50-25 BCE 8. Stupas Stupa is a solid memorial mound, enshrining a relic casket containing the cremated remains of the Buddha, or venerated Buddhist teachers. Practitioners circumambulate three times around the stupa Sanchi Stupa I (also known as the Great Stupa), dated 1st BCE; built of bricks and rubbles in a semi-circular shape, symbolizing the World Axis (19.8 meter) Toranas (Gates) decorated with reliefs depicting scenes from the Life of the Buddha and His past lives (jatakas) (35 feet); capital decorated with lion (S), elephant(N and E) and dwarf (W) Railing (vadika) separates the sacred and the profane worlds; imitated wooden architecture (3.35 m. high) Chattra (umbrella)-symbolizes the Buddha, Dharma (teachings) and Sangha (followers) Note: no depicted of the Buddha in Human form; used symbols such as foot print , empty throne, lotus pedestal 9. Sanchi Stupa I Asoka period Stupa is a relic mound; plan is swastika shape Toranas: two up right pillars (S-lion; N and E-elephant: W-dwarf Jatakas: Buddha past lives; 550 animals and human lives Note: no images of the Buddha was depicted; use only symbols such as footprint, lotus flower, an empty throne. 10. Eastern torana 11. Yakshinis Female figures (Yakshinis; male is called yakshas) on the brackets symbolizes tree goddesses; pre-Buddhist spirits associate with the generative or productive forces of nature, water, and strength of the inner breath. 12. Yakshi bracket figure from the east gate, 60 13. Northern gate 14. Detail of bracket on the easternn gate 15. Detail of bracket of the eastern gate 16. Detail of bracket on the eastern gate 17. Chaitaya and Vihara Stupa for circumambulation Chaitaya is a congregation hall Vihara is a residential hall Bhaja Cave, Shunga period, c. 1st century BCE Karli Cave , c. Early 2nd century CE Ajanta Caves (462-500) during the reign of King Hindu King Harishena of the Vakataka period Rock-cut caves Mural painting: moist coat of lime over layers of clay, cow dung, and other elements 18. 3.8 Chaitya at Romas Rishi Cave and Bhaja Cave, Late Shunga, c. 1st BCE 19. 3.9-10 Chaitya Hall ar Karli, Early 2nd century CE 20. 3.9 Karli Cave, Early 2nd CE 21. Kushan (30-320 CE and Later Andhra (1st CE-320 CE) Kushana: were nomadic Caucasians from Central Asia; King Kanishka (early 2nd C) extended the empire; Buddhist art has combinations of Hellenistic, Persians and Mauraya styles. Buddhist art were produced in 2 major styles: Gandhara (influenced by Hellenistic style) and Mathura (indigenous Indian) 22. Buddha images Hands (mudras): meditation (Dhyanamudra), First Sermon (dharmacakramudra), Earth-touching hand gesture (bhumisparsamudra) Legs (asana): folded one on top of the other Positions: sitting, standing and reclining Urna: tuft of hair between the eyebrows Usnisa: sign of great man (32 major characteristics and 80 minor characteristics) 23. 3.12 Kanishka I, Kushana Period, c. 120 CE (1.62 m) 24. 3.11 Seated Buddha, Gandhara, 2nd century CE. Schist 25. First Sermon 26. 3.14 Bamiyan Buddha, Afganistan, 2nd-5th century CE, destroyed in 2001 27. Bodhisattvas Buddha-to-be who remain on earth to help all of the beings into paradise (those who have bodhi, wisdom or enlightenment, also known as buddhas -in the making Wear jewelry and holds attributes Maitreya Bodhisattva (Future Buddha) Avalokistesvara Bodhisattva (Bodhisattva of Compassion); he resided in the Western paradise of Buddha Amitabha (Buddha of infinite light, space and time) Read detail in OReiley page 66 28. Maitreya Buddha, Gandhara, 1st-2nd 29. 3.13 Bodhisattva Padmapani, Cave 1, Ajanta c. late 5th CE