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Brain, Mind and Medicine:Essays in Eighteenth-Century Neuroscience

Brain, Mind and Medicine:Essays in Eighteenth-Century Neuroscience

Edited by

Harry WhitakerNorthern Michigan University, Marquette, MI, USA

C.U.M. SmithAston University, Birmingham, UK

Stanley FingerWashington University, St. Louis, MO, USA

Harry WhitakerDepartment of PsychologyNorthern Michigan UniversityMarquette, MI 49855-5334USA

C.U.M. SmithVision SciencesAston UniversityAston TriangleBirmingham B4 7ETUK

Stanley FingerDepartment of PsychologyWashington UniversityPsychology BuildingSt. Louis, MO 63130USA

Library of Congress Control Number: 200792479

ISBN-13: 978-0-387-70966-6e-ISBN-13: 979-0-387-70967-3

Printed on acid-free paper.

2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLCAll rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher(Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connectionwith reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden.The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, isnot to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights.

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There are three principal means of acquiring knowledge....observation of nature, reflection, andexperimentation. Observation collects facts; reflection combines them; experimentation verifies theresult of that combination

Denis Diderot (1753)

For is it not reasonable to think that the electrical machine would add greatly to the efficacy of themateria medica?

Morris (1753)

People will not look forward to posterity, who never look backward to their ancestorsEdmund Burke (1790)

vii

Contents

Section A: Introduction

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Harry Whitaker, C.U.M. Smith, and Stanley Finger

Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5C.U.M. Smith

Section B: Background

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13The Editors

1: Brain and Mind in the Long Eighteenth Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15C.U.M. Smith

2: Enlightening Neuroscience: Microscopes and Microscopy in the Eighteenth Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Brian J. Ford

3: Corpus Curricula: Medical Education and the Voluntary Hospital Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43Jonathan Reinarz

4: Some Thoughts on the Medical Milieu in the Last Quarter of the Eighteenth Century as Reflected in the Life and Activities of James Parkinson (17551824) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53Christopher Gardner-Thorpe

Section C: The Nervous System

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63The Editors

5: John Hunters Contributions to Neuroscience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67James L. Stone, James T. Goodrich, and George R. Cybulski

6: William Cullen (17101790) and Robert Whytt (17141766) on the Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85Julius Rocca

7: 1710: The Introduction of Experimental Nervous System Physiology and Anatomy by Franois Pourfour du Petit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99Lawrence Kruger and Larry W. Swanson

8: Irritable Glue: The HallerWhytt Controversy on the Mechanism of Muscle Contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115Eugenio Frixione

9: The Taming of the Electric Ray: From a Wonderful and Dreadful Art to Animal Electricity and Electric Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125Marco Piccolino

10: Luigi Galvani, Physician, Surgeon, Physicist: From Animal Electricity to Electro-Physiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145Miriam Focaccia and Raffaella Simili

Section D: Brain and Behaviour

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161The Editors

11: The Vision of William Porterfield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163Nicholas J. Wade

12: David Hartleys Neural Vibrations and Psychological Associations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177Robert B. Glassman and Hugh W. Buckingham

13: Charles Bonnets Neurophilosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191Harry A. Whitaker and Yves Turgeon

14: Swedenborg and Localization Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201Ulf Norrsell

Section E: Medical Theories and Applications

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211The Editors

15: Neuroscience in the Work of Boerhaave and Haller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213Peter J. Koehler

16: Apoplexy: Changing Concepts in the Eighteenth Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233Catherine E. Storey

viii Contents

17: Benjamin Franklin and the Electrical Cure for Disorders of the Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245Stanley Finger

18: Gentlemans Magazine, the Advent of Medical Electricity, and Disorders of the Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257Hannah Sypher Locke and Stanley Finger

19: Therapeutic Attractions: Early Applications of Electricity to the Art of Healing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271Paola Bertucci

20: John Wesley on the Estimation and Cure of Nervous Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285James G. Donat

21: Franz Anton Mesmer and the Rise and Fall of Animal Magnetism: Dramatic Cures, Controversy, and Ultimately a Triumph for the Scientific Method . . . . . . 301Douglas J. Lanska and Joseph T. Lanska

22: Hysteria in the Eighteenth Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321Diana Faber

Section F: Cultural Consequences

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333The Editors

23: Technological Metaphors and the Anatomy of Representations in Eighteenth-Century French Materialism and Dualist Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335Timo Kaitaro

24: Explorations of the Brain, Mind and Medicine in the Writings of Jonathan Swift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345Marjorie Perlman Lorch

25: Temperament and the Long Shadow of Nerves in the Eighteenth Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353George Rousseau

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

Contents ix

Contributors list

xi

Paola BertucciCIS, Dipartimento di Filosofia, Universit di BolognaVia Zamboni 38, 40126 Bologna, Italy

Hugh W. BuckinghamDepartment of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803

George R. CybulskiDepartment of Neurosurgery, Northwestern University and Division of Neurosurgery, Cook CountyStroger Hospital, Chicago, IL

James G. DonatP.O. Box 268529, Chicago, IL 60626-8529

Diana FaberSchool of Psychology, Eleanor Rathbone Building, Bedford Street South, Liverpool L69 7ZA, UK

Stanley FingerDepartment of Psychology, Campus Box 1125, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO 63130-4899

Miriam FocacciaDepartment of Philosophy, University of Bologna, Via Zamboni 38-40126 Bologna, Italy

Brian J. FordGonville and Caius College, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1TA, UK

Eugenio FrixioneSeccin de Metodologa y Teora de la Ciencia, Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados IPN,Apartado Postal 14-740, Mxico, D.F. 07000, Mexico

Christopher Gardner-ThorpeConsultant Neurologist, The Coach House, 1a College Road, Exeter EX1 1TE, UK

Robert B. GlassmanDepartment of Psychology, Lake Forest College, 555 N Sheridan Road, Lake Forest, IL 60045

James T. GoodrichDivision of Pediatric Neurological Surgery, Montefiore Childrens Hospital, and Albert Einstein Collegeof Medicine, New York, NY

Timo KaitaroDepartment of Philosophy, University of Helsinki, P. O. Box 9, SF-0014 Finland

Peter J. KoehlerDe