Biomedical engineering (BME)

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  • *Biomedical Engineering

    Tapeshwar Yadav(Lecturer)BMLT, DNHE, M.Sc. Medical Biochemistry

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • A A good student is liked by teacher

    G Greets everyone with smileO ObedientO On time for collegeD Dresses neatly

    S Studies with interestT Treats everyone with smileU Understands everythingD Does daily home workE Eager to know new thingsN Never misbehavesT Talks little in class

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  • *IntroductionWhat is biomedical engineering?

    Terminology, definitions

    History of biomedical engineering

    Sub-branches of BME

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • A loose definition of Biomedical Engineering:

    the application of engineering techniques and analyses to problem-solving in medicine and the biomedical sciences

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    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Diversity in the terminology(bio)medical engineering,bioengineering, biotechnologyclinical (medical) engineeringmedical technology.health care technology

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    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Medical engineering (medical engineer)uses engineering concepts and technology for development of instrumentation, diagnostic and therapeutic devices, artificial organs, and other medical devices needed in health care and in hospitalsrole:examine some portion of biology and medicine to identify areas in which advanced technology might be advantageous

    *

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Clinical engineering (clinical engineer)uses engineering, management concept, and technologyto improve health care in hospitalsbetter patient care at minimum costs thought the application of technologyrole is to provide services directlyrelated to patient care together with other health care professionalsproblems originated from clinical environment

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    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Clinical engineeringresponsible forequipment effectiveness andelectrical safety in medical instrumentationsystems and power supplyconstrained by regulationsmedical, federal, state, local, governmental, hospital

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    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Bioengineering (bioengineer)basic research-oriented activity closely related tobiotechnology andgenetic engineeringmodification of animal or plant cells to improve plants or animals to develop new micro-organismsBioengineering integratesphysical,chemical,mathematical, andcomputational sciences andengineering principles

    to study biology, medicine, behavior, and health.*

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • BioengineeringIt advances fundamental concepts;creates knowledge from the molecular to the organ systems levels;develops innovative biologics, materials, processes, implants, devices, and informatics approaches

    for theprevention,diagnosis, andtreatment of disease,

    for patient rehabilitation, and for improving health*

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Biomedical Engineering (BME)a growing and expanding interdisciplinary professionconcerned with the application ofengineering,mathematics,computing, andscience methodologies

    to the analysis of biological and physiological problemsproduce technological advances in health care

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    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Biomedical Engineering (BME)Definition 1:Biomedical engineering is a discipline thatadvances knowledge in engineering, biology and medicine, and improves human health through cross-disciplinary activities that integrate the engineering sciences with the biomedical sciences and clinical practice.

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    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Biomedical Engineering (BME)It includes:The acquisition of new knowledge and understanding of living systems through the innovative and substantive application of experimental and analytical techniques based on the engineering sciences.The development of new devices, algorithms, processes and systems that advance biology and medicine and improve medical practice and health care deliver

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    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Biomedical Engineering (BME)Definition2:

    The use of engineering technology, instrumentation and methods to solve medical problems, such as improving our understanding of physiology and the manufacture of artificial limbs and organs.*

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Biomedical engineersapply different engineering principleselectrical and electronicsinstrumentation, bioamplifiersmechanical,artificial limbs, prosthesesphysicaldiagnostic imaging and therapeutic deviceschemical,biosensors, chemical analysers

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    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Biomedical engineersapply different engineering principles Contdoptical,fiber optics, optical measurementscomputer sciencecomputational medicine, signal and image analysis, information systemsmaterial scienceimplanted devices, artificial tissues

    *

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Biomedical Engineering (BME)Biomedical engineersto understand, modify,

    or controlbiologic systemsApplication ofengineering system analysisphysiologic modeling,simulation, and control

    *

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Biomedical Engineering (BME)Biomedical engineers:design and manufacture products that can monitor physiologic functions ordisplay anatomic detailDetection, measurement, and monitoring of physiologic signalsbiosensorsbiomedical instrumentationMedical imaging

    *

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Biomedical Engineering (BME)Biomedical engineers: CONTD

    assist in the diagnosis and treatment of patientsComputer analysis of patient-related dataclinical decision makingmedical informaticsartificial intelligencesupervise biomedical equipment maintenance technicians,investigate medical equipment failure,advise hospitals about purchasing and installing new equipment

    *

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Important milestones in the development of medical instrumentsThermometer1603, Galileo1625, body temperature measurementOptical lens1666, Newton1850-, ophthalmoscope, HelmholtzStethoscope1819, hollow tube1851, binaural stethoscopeHypodermic syringe1853, WoodX-ray1895, Roentgen1896, in diagnosis and therapy

    *Radioactivity1896, Curie1903, in therapyElectrocardiograph1887, Waller, capillary meter1903, Einthoven,galvanometer 1928, vacuum tubeElectroencephalograph1924, BergerpH electrode1906, CremerElectrical surgical unit, 1928

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Important milestones in the development of medical instrumentsCyclotron, artificial radionuclides1936, LawrenceAssisting ventilator1928, "iron lung"1945, positive pressureUltrasonic imagingpulse-echo, 1947Doppler, 1950sMagnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)NRM, Bloch, Purcell, 1946MRI, 1982

    *Computed tomography1969, Cormack, HounsfieldElectrical heart defibrillator1956, Zoll1980, implantedImplanted electrical heart pacemaker1960, GreatbatchHeart valves, 1975Cardiac catheter, 1975Artificial kidney (dialysis), 1960Artificial heart, 1984

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Some Branches of BMEBiomechanicsapplication of classical mechanics to biological or medical problemsstudy of movement of biologic solids, fluids and viscoelastic materials, muscle forcesdesign of artificial limbsBiomaterials:study of both living tissue and artificial synthetic biomaterials (polymers, metals, ceramics, composites) used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue (implants)biomaterials:nontoxic,non-carcinogenicchemically inertstablemechanically strong

    *

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Some Branches of BMEBiomedical sensorsphysical measurements, biopotential electrodes, electrochemical sensors, optical sensors, bioanalytic sensorsBioelectric phenomena:origin in nerve and muscle cellsgeneration in nerves, brain, heart, skeletal musclesanalysis,modelling,recording anddiagnosis

    *

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Some Branches of BMEBiomedical signal processing and analysiscollection and analysis of data from patientsbioelectric, physical, chemical signalsonline (embedded) and off-line processing and analysisMedical imaging and image processing:provision of graphic display of anatomic detail and physiological functions of the bodymedical imaging methods and devicesphysical phenomena + detectors + electronic data processing+ graphic display = imagex-ray, gamma photons, MRI, Ultrasound

    *

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Some Branches of BMEMedical instruments and devices:design of medical instruments and devices to monitor and measure biological functionsapplication of electronics and measurement techniques to develop devices used in diagnosis and treatment of diseasebiopotential amplifierspatient monitorselectrosurgical devicesBiotechnologytechnology at cellular level

    *

    Copyright 2000 N. AYDIN. All rights reserved.*

  • Some Branches of BMECell and tissue engineering:utilization of anatomy, biochemistry and mechanics of cellular and subcellular structures to understand disease processes and to be able to intervene at very specific sites.design, construction, modification, growth and maintenance of living tissue (bioartificial tissue and alteration of cell growth and function)Rehabilitation engineering:application of science and technology to improve the quality of life for individual

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