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DESCRIPTIONBaroque Style. Baroque Theatre. Sebastiano Serlios linear perspective and Italianate staging evolved further:. Wings were painted in diminishing perspective. Borders were hung overhead to complete the frame. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Sebastiano Serlios linear perspective and Italianate staging evolved further:Jacques Callot, French. Engraving and etching of The Combat at the Barrier (1627) Wings were painted in diminishing perspective. Borders were hung overhead to complete the frame.Shutters at the rear of the stage served as a backdrop when closed, but could open to reveal a final scene.
Raked Stages reinforced false perspective.Proscenium Arch became a permanent structure.
Isral Silvestre the Younger, French. Engraving and etching of Pleasures of the Enchanted Island By Molire and Lully (1664)
Giacomo Torelli introduced the pole and chariot system to all of Europe.Paris was the undisputed center of cultural life in France after 1600. Opera became solidified as an artform.Atys, a lyric tragedy by Philippe Quinault and Jean-Baptiste Lully (1676)Intermezzo: short musical piece played between acts of a play
Characteristics of the Baroque Theatre:
Theatricality: artists use of dramatic gesture and movement in composition.Break out of the confines of the block in sculpture and architecture.
Technical virtuosity, a characteristic shared with the Mannerist style of the previous century.
Emotional response in the viewer, in both religious art and in the depiction of everyday life.Costume by Jean Berain (1640-1711)Court Masque design by Inigo Jones (1573-1652)
Italian ChronologyClassical Baroque and Baroque Style
The Baroque in Italy:
1550-1630: The Catholic Church launches the Counter-Reformation. Explosion of projects under Papal patronage in Rome. Vignola designs Ges. The completion of the faade of St. Peter's. Gian Lorenzo Bernini completes his David.
1630-1675: Bernini's Saint Teresa, St. Peter's piazza, Borromini's San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane.
French ChronologyClassical Baroque and Baroque Style
The Baroque in France:
1610: Marie deMedici rules as regent for her son Louis XIII. Cardinal de Richelieu sets about to increase the power of the Crown at the expense of the French nobility.
1648: the insurrection of both nobility and the populace which attempted to reduced the king's powers ended in failure, and resulted in the establishment of absolutism under Louis XIV
1661-1715: Louis embarks on a series of building projects to glorify his personal power, notably Versailles. Establishment of the Royal Academies of the Arts and Sciences. The Classical Baroque period. Barroco - a large, irregularly shaped pearl.
English ChronologyClassical Baroque and Baroque Style
The Baroque in England: 1603: the succession of James I, and extended royal patronage of the arts. Shakespeare wrote some of his best plays - Macbeth, Othello, King Lear, and The Tempest. Inigo Jones introduced Renaissance classicism to England. Jones designed the Whitehall Banqueting Hall and the court masques that were staged there.
1649: the execution of Charles I, civil was and the Commonwealth under Cromwell. The public theatres were closed.
1660: Charles II returns to England, to reign until 1685. His patronage of the arts was an imitation of the brilliant court of Louis XIV. Wren rebuilds Saint Paul's Cathedral. The theatres are reopened to the sparkling wit of the Restoration playwrights.
By the early 17th century
Opposing Christian Protestant and Catholic positions
Religious warfare and persecution
Second half of the 17th century - Classical Baroque
French Baroque style: French Academy system.
Dominated by France under Louis XIV and his absolutism: "L'tat, c'est moi" (I am the State)
The 17th century also saw further developments in science. The adoption of the scientific method to explore natural phenomena led to many discoveries about the natural world.
Isaac Newton (1642-1727) revolutionized thinking about the physical structure of the Universe and man's place in it.
Italian ArchitectureThe patronage of the Papal court spurred by the Counter-Reformation, accelerated church building and decoration in Italy.
In contrast to the Renaissance ideal of the central plan church, Counter-Reformation thinking called for long, wide naves to accommodate a swelling congregation and the elaborate processional entry of the clergy at the celebration of the Mass.
To answer to the new imperatives, architects developed a domed central plan with an extended nave and west narthex.
Church of Il Ges, Rome (1568-84)By Giacomo da Vignola and Giacomo della Porta Colossal Order: columns or pilasters extending through two stories - vertically tying them togetherCurvilinear volutes: scroll forms (aid the transition between the wide lower stories and the narrow upper level)
Church of Il Ges, Rome (1568-84)By Giacomo da Vignola and Giacomo della Porta Enlarged Nave for a swelling congregationBarrel Vault - Hemispheric Pendentive DomeCounter-Reformation: Accelerated Evangelization and DecorationLook to the classical and dramatic movement
Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome (1607-1615)By Carlo Maderna (completed faade and nave extension)Pilasters: flat rectangular columns attached to a wall (colossal columns on the outside corners)
Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome (1607-1615)
Piazza by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1656)
Creating the illusion of an expanding vista through reverse perspective.
This effect of the contraction and expansion of space is the basis of all Baroque design.
Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome (1638-45)By Francesco BorrominiBaroque architects pushed the boundaries of Renaissance classicism using oval domes instead of circular. Undulating concave and convex curves.Chiaroscuro effect of architecture with deeply recessed niches.Cartouche
French ArchitecturePost Italianate extravagances of Fontainebleau led to an acceptance of the rules of classicism pervaded French art, literature and education.
These rules, applied to architecture, were based on mathematical formulae and the works of Vitruvius and Palladio, and resulted in grand building projects aimed at promoting the imperial regime of the king, Louis XIV. This pompous style is known as the Classical Baroque in France .
Royal Academy of Architecture: codifying the principles of design in line with other arts. Louis XIV set out to form these academies for the youth to provide them rudiments of greatness:Painting and sculpture (reformed in 1664), Dance (1661), Inscriptions and Belles Letters (1663), Sciences (1666), Music (1669)
Garden Side redesigned by Le Vaus successor Jules Hardouin-Mansart (1678)Rusticated StoneArched windows and Ionic ColumnsBalustrade (roof line): Railing
Palace of Versailles (1665)By Louis Le Vau
Cour de Marbre: Marble Court (Central block)
Careful balance of horizontal and vertical lines
Palace of Versailles (1680) Hall of MirrorsBy Charles Le Brun
True double French windows (used here for the first time)
Classical Baroque: Pompous Style Gardens by Andr Le Notre (1668-85)
Unified, Visual Whole:First time architecture, interior design and landscaping conformed to the same set of compositional and aesthetic principles.
Palace of Versailles - Salle de Gardes de la Reine (1671-81) By Charles Le Brun
Enfilade [en-fuh-lahd]: rooms connected by doors next to the window wall. uninterrupted view. (Louis control over his nobility.)
French Classical Baroque Walnut TableAndr-Charles Boulle (1642-1732) was responsible for much of the furniture that graced Versailles.
Emphasis was placed on precious surfaces; ivory and ebony, white and black, were considered "noble" materials. Walnut from the south of France and ebony from Ceylon were the woods of choice.Ormolu [awr-muh-loo] : gilded brass or bronze used for furniture mounts and other purposes; also called gilt-bronze
Louis XIVUpholstery played a big role in seating. At the court of Versailles there was a need for seats of various heights to satisfy the demands of etiquette. The Bergre: a French upholstered armchair with curved back and relatively wide seat. space beneath the arm upholstered as well.
^ Cabinet on a Stand> Armoire (Wardrobe) By Andr-Charles BoulleBoulle Marquetry: a form of marquetry which worked with brass
EnglishArchitectureElizabeth I died in 1603. During this period of turmoil under two successive Catholic monarchs ended in the Civil War in 1649, and Puritan rule under Cromwell.
Architecture in England during the first half of the 17th century continued in the late Renaissance style. Its chief characteristics are a simplified classicism of a more human scale than in the French Classical Baroque, a continued use of large windows, and the habit of combining warm brick walls with white stone door and window trim.
Charles II (1660) brought the exaggerated French fashions, manners, and styles of his exile to conservative England. However, the English had always prized moderation and comfort above all things, and architecture and design continued to exhibit an unmistakable English flavor. This later period in England is called the Restoration Baroque style.
Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, London (1630-35)By Inigo JonesPuritan rule under Cromwell - Still Late Renaissance: simplified classicism of a more human scale based on the work of PalladioRestoration Baroque: moderation and comfort above all thingsFree from Italian embellishment (classical elements: engaged columns/pilasters, window framing alternating rounded and triangular pediments. )Jones built a new Banqueting House