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  1. 1. INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION; A comparative analysis of rectors and educators perceptions and understandings a Case Study in Mauritius by Balakrishna Lutchmiah Quality Assurance Officer, Ministry of Education and Human Resources, Mauritius. email address: blutchmiah@mail.govmu.org 1 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014
  2. 2. Research Questions: The main research question: Is there any similarity and/or difference between the rectors' and the educators' perceptions and understandings of supervision of instruction in their respective schools? The subsidiary questions: How do educators understand the process of instructional supervision in their schools? How do educators perceive their rectors as instructional leaders? What are the rectors' understandings of the process of supervision of instruction? How do rectors perceive themselves as instructional leaders? 2 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014
  3. 3. Findings of available research 3 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014 Research has provided evidence that school leaders strongly influence student learning .the responsibilities of supervisors, if carried out appropriately, will create a conducive teaching/learning environment Instructional leadership provided by the Principal is a contributing factor to higher achievement teachers do not find instructional supervision, as a platform for the development of ownership and professional growth Novice teachers perceive supervision as important for their professional development
  4. 4. From Literature 4 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014 leadership of instruction should emanate from both rectors and educators, with the latter having content knowledge and delivering classroom instruction while rectors are responsible for creating the appropriate conducive climate in support of that instruction. Hoy and Hoy (2009, p.2) Strong leadership creates the climate in which effective teaching and student achievement flourish. West-Burnham (in Brundrett 2013, p.23) Instructional Leadership is in many ways a shared responsibility and engenders a common sense of commitment and collegiality among the staff'. (Ayeni, 2012, p.63)
  5. 5. INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION 5 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014 CLINICAL SUPERVISION MENTORING COACHING WALKTHROUGHS
  6. 6. MY ONTOLOGICAL AND EPISTEMOLOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS Belief that reality is constructed everyday through our perceptions and understandings of the world around us. Iam a pragmatist drawing on positivism and interpretive epistemologies. I adopt what Robson (2011, p28) refers to fallibism, that is current beliefs and research conclusions are rarely, if ever, viewed as perfect, certain or absolute. 6 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014 ONTOLOGY About the nature of reality EPISTEMOLOGY About the theory of knowledge, its nature and how it is gained or generated. METHODOLOGY Determine instrumentation and data collection
  7. 7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Mixed method approach works beyond quantitative and qualitative exclusivity or affiliation, and in a pragmatist paradigm (Onwuegbuzie and Leech 2005a; Johnson et al 2007; Teddie et al 2009 in Cohen et al , 2011, p23) 7 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014 MIXED METHOD APPROACH Qualitative Quantitative Qualitative
  8. 8. The Case Study as an investigation into rectors and educators perspectives in instructional supervision and leadership in 6 State Secondary Schools in Mauritius I find relatability of a case study as more important than its generalizability Bassey, 1981 in Bell (2010, p8-10) 8 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014 (i) an in-depth study of (ii) one or more instances of a phenomenon (iii) in its real life context that (iv) reflects the perspective of the participants Gall, Gall and Borg (2007, p.447) The case or unit may not be representative of the population It would be most inappropriate to have generalisations Verma and Mallick (1999)
  9. 9. DATA COLLECTION 9 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014 Survey Questionnaire Collecting the same type of information from every member of the sample However people who choose the same response may not mean the same thing and different answers to the same question do not reflect real differences between respondents Interview A flexible and adaptable way of finding things out Follow up ideas, probe responses and investigate motives and feelings
  10. 10. THE SAMPLING METHOD Reasons for Convenience/Purposive sample Temporal exigencies Responds to the convenience in terms of availability, ease of access Because the individuals were volunteers to the project Schools where an ongoing process of supervision of instruction exists one of the assumptions of this study. 10 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014 SAMPLING METHODS NON-PROBABILITY CONVENIENCE PURPOSIVE
  11. 11. MY ETHICAL CONCERN 11 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014 Access to educators in sample through rectors in the sample. Interviews held at respondents convenience and either at neutral venues or at respondents residence. Transcripts of interviews were sent back to respondents for any change they would wish to bring Held good my commitment of confidentiality which I vow to keep at all times Used reflexivity as an introspective analysis of the research process
  12. 12. FINDINGS 1 12 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014 Rectors and Educators understand Instructional Supervision 'as the process of engaging teachers in instructional dialogue for the purpose of improving teaching and increasing student achievement (Sullivan et al, 2009, p.4). Educators do not share the view of Rectors when the latter understand Instructional Supervision as involving authority, control and accountability. 60% of educators are also in favor of 'Appraisal' as an approach to supervision Mentoring is viewed as the most important approach to supervision and consider walkthroughs as better options compared to lengthy lesson observation.
  13. 13. FINDINGS 2 13 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014 % Time 10 10- 25 26- 50 50- 70 70 Time desired 0 0 2 1 3 Actual time . 2 1 2 1 0
  14. 14. FINDINGS -3 The class observation is not accompanied by pre- and post- observation conferences. This perhaps explains educators satisfaction with Instructional Supervision in terms of quantity and of quality. Rectors feel that most educators view supervision without any fear or threat except many senior ones. Educators have apprehensions because Rectors do not give them feedback and hence view it as only for administrative convenience. Moreover educators feel that it lacks the pedagogical support dimension and hence they question their Rectors abilities to deal with pedagogy and curriculum. 14 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014
  15. 15. Findings-4 Most Educators perceive their Rectors as Instructional Heads, an opinion shared by all Rectors except one. They consider themselves an important instructional resource person as educators do believe. Rectors refer to the Instructional Leader as a Pedagogical Leader-- a patient, supportive and visible person as well as an excellent communicator. -- who takes care of his/her own professional development by being a lifelong learner. Educators talk about the Instructional Leader as a caring person who considers people as professionals, while being also highly visible. Above all, s/he should be an expert in teaching and learning. 15 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014
  16. 16. DISCUSSION ON IMPROVING INSRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION Rectors: Lack of time for proper instructional supervision Resistance of Heads of Department to support Lack of culture for supervision Educator accountability Educators: Development of latent capital in both rectors and educators Empowerment of Heads of Department Development of a system approach to supervision 16 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014
  17. 17. 17 MIDDLESEX UNIVERSITY MAURITIUS BRANCH CAMPUS Research in Education Conference 2014 Leadership aimed at instructional improvement signals the importance of creating and sustaining a school-wide focus on learning, not only for students, but also for teachers and staff (Robinson et al, 2008 in Barnett et al., p54) Successful leaders reshape the conditions for teaching and learning, restructure parts of the organisation, redesign leadership roles and responsibilities and build collaboration internally. Day et al.,2010 in Brundrett, 3013,p11 Learning-Focused Leadership Professional Learning sits at the heart of leadership Knapp et al., in Barnett et al., 2012, p 189
  18. 18. RECOMMENDATIONS Policy Makers: o Include a module on Quality Assurance and Supervision in all courses at the MIE with a view to develop a protocol for Ins. Sup. o Reconsider the role and responsibilities of Heads of subject department and clarify the position of Senior Educators i.c.w pedagogy and leadership for supervision. Heads of schools: o Set up a QA mechanism at school for self-evaluation o SDP/SIP a roadmap for continuous learning and prof. development o Use the Performance Management System as a tool to empower all stakeholders for greater accountability. 18 MIDDLESEX UNIVER