Baking Substitution Science Webinar

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Post on 01-Jan-2017




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  • Presented by

    Home Baking Association

    Cabot Creamery


    Sharon Davis Family & Consumer Sciences


    Home Baking Association

    Baking Substitution Science

    carrot enrichedreduced sodiumegg freewhole wheatagave nectargluten-free

  • Baking Substitution Science Goals

    1. Affordable, home prepared

    2. Ingredient functions

    3. Nutrient-dense substitutions and additions for

    liquids, fats, sugars, sweeteners, flours, reducing sodium, allergies/intolerances

    4. Methods, temperatures important to success

    5. Baking Resources, Questions

    Share! #bakingfun

  • 3

    Why People Bake 72%=Treat friends, family with love; handcrafted by me for you 60%= So I can control ingredients in my food (83% in UK) 42-48%=Desire to keep traditions, its my lifestyle 43%=Saving money, resources important 33% would bake moreif I knew how

    Reasons for home baking, August 2011

    Source: Mintel, 2011, Home Baking Association survey Base: 1,920 internet users aged 18+ who bake or are primary household shoppers

  • Active, DIY food lifestyle

    Literacy, science, math, tech

    Art, history, cultures

    Build relationships, mealtimes

    nutrients, variety

    Fruits, veggies, nuts

    Calcium, potassium, protein

    Whole grains, antioxidants

    Portion control

    Control sodium, fats, sweets

    Food allergies; Celiac sprue

    Conserve food $$$, packaging

    Benefits Bonanza

  • Liquids in Baking

    Liquids function to 1. Moisten/hydrate flours, meal,

    proteins, starches, whole grains 2. Dissolve sugars 3. Hydrate leavening 4. Help blend ingredients 5. Turn to steam, expand air cells 6. Set (gelatinize) product 7. Provide flavor, texture, richness 8. Add nutrients 9. Humectant (holds moisture) 10. Aid browning

    Pumpkin Raisin Bread

  • Fruits, Veggies as Liquid Substitute

    Most fruits, veggies are 80-92% water 1 cup shredded apple, carrot, mandarin oranges,

    zucchini; cooked pumpkin, sweet potato, squash; beets; mashed or pureed bananas, strawberries

    contain ~ to 7/8 cup water 1 c. water = 1 c. shredded carrots + c. water

    Whole grain baking 2 c. whole grain flour, add c - c any above

    If the fruit/veggie is acidic: 1 Tablespoon baking powder to 1 - 2 tsps baking powder + tsp baking soda

    Strawberry Muffin Tops

    A Bakers Dozen Labs, More great recipes:

    House-Autry Sweet Potato Cornbread

    "Jiffy" Mix Bread Recipes

    Shawnee Milling Company Recipes

  • Dairy Ingredients

    Milk = 90% water

    Milks baking functions

    Boosts protein, vitamins, minerals

    Lactose sweetens, browning Delays staling Yeast breads: Scald fluid milk OR use high heat

    dry milk ( Use 2 oz. water per oz. yeast


    Whole milk= 4% fat = 1 c. skim + 2 T. butter

    *Sour milk/buttermilk:

    1 T. lemon juice or vinegar plus milk to equal 1 c. Stir, let stand 5 - 10 minutes.

    *May use non-dairy milks: may brown more due to sugars

    Cheddar, Tomato, Spinach Scones Cabot 2% Plain Greek-Style Yogurt

    Cabot Sharp Light Cheddar

  • New Kid on the Block Cabot Greek-Style Yogurt

    90-100% higher in protein than regular yogurt

    33% less lactose and sodium

    76.5% (10%) to 82% (2%) moisture

    saturated fat, while protein, Ca, potassium

    Top waffles, layer parfaits, mix smoothies & pudding

    Thin slightly with milk to sub for buttermilk

    1/3 c milk + 2/3 c Greek-style yogurt

    Sub 1:1 for sour cream and crme fraiche

    2% Cabot Greek-style = 40g less fat/23g sat; 17g more protein

    More at

  • Baking Functions of Fats

    Add flavor

    Tenderize, tender crumb

    Flakiness in biscuits, pastry, croissant

    Crispness in cookies, crackers, pie crust

    Delay staling

    Large amounts interfere with formation of gluten

    More @:,

  • When Less is More

    Quick breads: reduce fat - ; Sub grated/mashed fruits/veggies

    1 T. (15g) canned pumpkin = 35% DV Vit A/serving Sub up to 6 T. flaxmeal--While creaming sugar

    and butter, add 3 T. flaxmeal for each 1 T. oil/butter/shortening

    3 T. provides 3600mg Omega-3; 6g fiber; 5g protein Sub Greek-style yogurt for to oil,

    shortening, margarine, butter or cream cheese in frostings, cookies, cakes, scones, pie crust

    (See right)

    Sub Cabot Light Cheddar Cheeses for half the fat in yeast breads, use 10-15% of the flour weight, water 5%

    1 c. butter = c. unsalted butter c. Cabot Plain Greek-Style Yogurt Less: 52g sat. fat, 727 Kcal More: 5g protein, 75 mg @ Ca & potassium

    Chocolate Chip Cookies

  • Protein for Fat

    2-crust pie: 2 1/4 c. unbleached all-purpose flour, 1/4 tsp salt 12 T. (6 oz) cold, salted butter, 1/2 c. Cabot 2% Plain Greek-Style Yogurt

    Additional Substitutions Scones, biscuits, shortcakes 1 c. heavy cream = c. cream, c. 2% plain Greek-style yogurt Cheese cake, tiramisu: 8 oz. cream cheese or mascarpone = c. 2% plain Greek-style yogurt + 4 oz. cream cheese/mascarpone

    Easy Flaky Cabot

    Greek-Style Yogurt Pie Crust

    c. Greek-style yogurt

    subs water & 25% of butter

    80 mg potassium

    30 mg calcium

    5g protein

    17g total fat/10.5g sat

    Acidity modifies gluten

  • Have Your Cake

    Cake: 2/3 c. oil 1 c. Cabot 2% Plain Greek-Style Yogurt 3 eggs Chocolate Frosting: 1/2 c. Cabot 2% Plain Greek-Style Yogurt 1/2 c. unsweetened (nonalkalized) baking cocoa 1 tsp. vanilla extract 1/4 tsp. cinnamon 3 1/2 4 c. confectioners sugar

    Chocolate Layer Cake with Chocolate Frosting

    Chocolate Frosting--2T/28g Recipe below Canned/Buttercream 90 kcal 130 kcal 20g sugar 18g sugar 0 fat , 0 Na 5g/2g sat 1g protein 35-95mg Na

  • Bake with Natural Sugars, Sweeteners

    Sucrose derived from photosynthesis

    plant-stored carbohydrates in nectar,

    plant parts, fructose, and lactose in milk.

    Baking Functions:

    Cream with fat to aerate batter/dough

    Add or vary flavor

    Helps brown crust

    Helps maintain freshness, hold moisture

    Food for yeast

    Too much sugar delays yeast action and softens gluten Ex: Sweet roll dough may need more yeast due to high amounts of

    sugar slowing fermentation

    Much more at

    Baking Glossary,

  • Sweet!

    A Bakers Dozen. Lab 7 Sweet!

    Three basic classifications caloric artificial sugar alcohols/polyols Home baking natural sugars and sweeteners Agave nectar Honey Marshmallow crme Sucrose (granulated, brown, confectioners) Sugar and Stevia blend (CH or Domino Sugar Light)

    Resources Types of Sugar, Sugar IQ. Test kitchens:,,

    Corn syrup (not HFCS)



  • Sweetness and Life

    First 2000 years of sugar and now Consumer palates accustomed to artificial sweeteners, 1200 X sweeter than natural sugar Fresh-baked can = not as sweet = less total sugars Apply portion sense 20 years ago muffins = 1.5 oz (210 kcal) Today, muffins may = 4 oz+ (500 kcal) Obesity Education Initiative Information Decrease amount used Drizzle instead of fully frosted Sift powdered sugar Citrus/nectar/corn syrup or sugar glazes

    Low Fat Spice Cake

    CALORIES Agave Syrup Honey Cane Sugar

    Calories per Tablespoon 60 64 45

    Calories for Equal Sweetness 40 48 45

  • Sugar and Sweetener Substitutions Standard recipes = granulated sugar cane and sugar beets

    Agave nectar (150% sweeter than sugar)

    2/3 cup agave nectar = 1 c. sugar

    Reduce liquids to 1/3 c per 2/3 c agave nectar

    Honey (125% sweeter than sugar)

    1 cup honey = 1 c. sugar OR

    2 c. powdered sugar + c. liquid

    Reduce liquid cup per cup of honey used

    Use tsp. baking soda for each cup honey used

    Molasses, sorghum

    2 T. + 1 c. granulated sugar = 1 c. packed brown sugar

    Corn syrup, dark or light; (fructose & sucrose)

    Contains no HFCS; use specific recipes

    Sugar & Stevia light blend

    Use half (50%) of sugar amount; package directs

    Stevia plant

    Learn more from test kitchen professionals:,,

  • Great Fruit Dip Options

    Dip 1: Creamy Fresh Fruit Dip 1 , (8 oz) pkg. reduced fat Neufchatel

    cream cheese OR c. Greek yogurt+ 4 oz. reduced fat

    cream cheese 1/2 (7 oz) jar Solo marshmallow crme 1 T. fresh lime, lemon or orange juice 1 tsp. zest of same citrus fruit 1.7 tsp sugar per dip serving Lactose, 8g (2 tsp sugar) Cream cheese (4 oz), 4g Greek yogurt (4 oz), 4g Sucrose, 60g (15 tsp sugar) Marshmallow crme = (3.5 oz) Recipe:

    Dip 2: Sweet & Creamy Fresh Fruit Dip 8 oz. cream cheese, softened 1/3 c. C&H Organic Light Agave Nectar 1 teaspoon vanilla extract 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon 1.3 tsp sugar per dip serving Lactose, 8 g (2 tsp sugar) Cream cheese (8 oz) Sucrose/fructose, 85g (11 tsp) Agave nectar = 1/3 c. = 85g Recipe:

    Both serve 10, 2 T. dip per serving

    Both ~1.5 tsp sugar/dip serving

  • Cookie Traits Crispness

    Cause of Trait

    Stiff dough with low moisture

    High fat and sugar in the recipe

    Bake long enough for moisture to


    Small size or thin shape

    Store to prevent cookies from

    absorbing moisture Cookie Science.

    A Bakers Dozen Labs, p. 72.

  • Cause of Trait

    A lot of moisture in mix

    Lower fat and sugar

    Sweeteners: Agave nectar, honey, molasses, or

    corn syrup


    Large size and thick shape

    Tip: Always condition (moisten 5 minutes and drain) dry fruit before adding.

    Test kitchens:,,,

    Cookie Traits Softness

  • Cause of Trait

    High sugar and liquid content, lower fat


    Higher proportion of eggs

    More mixing to develop gluten

    Use of a stronger (higher protein) flour Sources: The All-American Cookie Book. Nancy Baggett,

    Cookie Science. A Bakers Dozen Lab, p. 72. Rabbit Creek Gourmet

    Cookie Traits Chewiness

  • Spread Decreased by

    Use of superfine sugar or confectioners sugar

    Blending fat and sugar just to paste

    shortening, butter (cold)

    Preheat oven; higher oven temperature

    Stronger flour or heavy mixing

    Properly cooling baking pan before next batch

    Use of parchment liners

    Cookie Science.

    Test kitchens:,,,,,,

  • May Need to Control Browning

    sugar or sweetener 10% if subbing fruit nectars, sauce or purees for water

    Milk, yogurt browning. Tent product last 15 minutes

    Agave, honey require

    oven temp 25F

    Stevia and sugar blend

    refer to website or package

    More Baking with sugar and stevia: or

    Ingredient Substitution Guide card

  • Salt in Baking Table salt fineiodized or non-iodized

    Adds flavor

    Controls yeast action and strengthens gluten

    Too little makes texture dense and heavy; flavor will be flat or yeasty

    Potassium chloride only substitutes not recommended

    Daily sodium and potassium targets:

    Sodium1500mg (over 51 years) to 2300 mg Potassium4700 mg from food

    Ages 2- 5 in U.S. average 2310 mg; 8-12 = 3260mg; 13-19 = 3480 mg

    Center for Disease Control. 3/2013.

  • RTE, Processed Foods Top Sodium Sources


    Chocolate Instant Pudding, 270 mg*

    Refrigerated Biscuits,

    (34g), 360mg

    Baker's Choice Brownie Mix, 100mg

    1 slice whole grain bread,

    (35g), 170+ mg

    Home-prepared (w/unsalted butter)

    Cabot Chocolate Greek-Style Yogurt Pudding, 106mg

    Baking Powder Biscuits, (38g) Clabber Girl , 90mg

    Betty Crocker All-time Fav Brownie, 14 -70 mg

    Whole grain bread (35g), 75mg to 140mg

    *mg sodium

  • Reduce Sodium in Baking Fresh, home preps, smaller portions, herbs

    Unsalted butter (90mg less/Tbsp) Greek-style yogurt for buttermilk (90 mg less/c) 1 c. buttermilk = 1/3 c. milk + 2/3 c. Greek-style yogurt

    Cabot Sharp Light Cheddar (compare to regular) salt tsp (590mg) or more; added cheeses, seasonings, olives

    Try yeasted waffles, pancakes (1 tsp salt/1c water/1 pkg yeast /4 c flour) Chemical Leavenings

    1 tsp baking powder = 520 mg 1 tsp baking soda = 1280mg Note: old days used more eggs, whipped egg whites


    Grilled Cheddar Flatbread

  • Wheat Flours Milled from red or white wheat classes. Whole or enriched. Hard wheat = strong wheat = higher protein/gluten strength (yeast breads, durum for pasta, strudel) Bread flour = 11.3 to 13% protein Soft wheat = lower protein, less gluten, tender products Cake flour = 6.5 to 8.5% protein 2 T. cornstarch + 7/8 c all-purpose flour Pastry = 8 to 9% All-purpose flour = blend of both; 9 to 11% protein Self-rising flour = 1 c. all-purpose flour +1 t. baking powder + 1/2 t. salt

    More about White Wheat: Visit Our Glossary

    Resources: Six Classes of Wheat; Types of Flour; Wheat Flour 101. North American Millers Association.

    Art by Thomas Hart Benton

  • Whole Wheat Flour Substitution NOT whole wheat flour if

    enriched, bleached, all-purpose, cake, pastry, self-rising NOT whole-grain if de-germinated, bran, germ or pearled

    Any recipe: Fluff flour, spoon, level OR weigh Substitute enriched wheat flour with 1 T, up to (50%) whole wheat flour + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Whole grain = 8 g whole grain (or more) per serving Include all whole meal and flour weights

  • 51% to 100% Whole Wheat Flour Substitution

    Try it! Use hard or soft whole wheat flours as needed White whole wheat flour may increase acceptance Cocoa or chocolate, grated fruits or veggies, spices mask, add moisture Lighter texture: Use yogurt, sour milk, buttermilk Dont need more yeast in whole wheat yeast breads; time

    100% Whole Wheat Chocolate Waffles

    Portable Kitchens.

  • Lbs p



    Wheat and Obesity in the News

    Sources: US Census Bureau and CDC

    Economic Research Service, USDA.

    What We Eat America. 2000-2010 Teaching resources:

    Fact Sheets. Grains of Truth.

    2012 = 134.4 lbs/capita11.9 lbs less than 2000

  • Ingredient Allergies, Intolerances, Celiac Disease

    Gain board certified allergist diagnosis

    Blood test/intestinal biopsy for Celiac Disease

    Self-diagnosis may lead to unnecessary exclusion of nutritious foods, extra expen$e (200X), stress

    ~ 2% of population, up to 5% of children, allergic to dairy, egg, tree nuts, soy, wheat (0.5%), peanuts

    Gluten: NCDGS (est 1-6%) and Celiac disease (

  • Egg Baking Functions

    Test kitchens use large eggs

    Add color, flavor, nutrition

    Form fine crumb, tender crust

    When beaten, add volume and leavening

    Egg whites are protein, add structure, toughness

    Steam from egg also leavens during baking

    For better volume, use room temperature egg whites (68-72 F.) (meringues, waffles, cakes)

    Resource: Baking, cooking, handling eggs.

  • Egg and Dairy Substitutes Egg substitutes best used for just 1-2 eggs quick breads, cookies, muffins, bars, pancakes

    Cream sugar and cold butter well;

    beat in egg substitute:

    1 large egg = 2 egg whites + tsp vegetable oil OR 3 Tablespoons water + 1 Tablespoon flax meal

    OR c soft silken tofu

    Dairy substitutes: Soy, rice, almond milks (compare fat, sugars)

    Cream cheese: 12 oz silken tofu + 2 T veg. oil + 1 t. lemon juice + 1/8 t salt + dash white pepper Sour cream: increase lemon juice to 1 T., reduce oil 1 T.

    More flax meal @


    Substitution workshop

  • Baking with Non-wheat Flours Offers

    1: Nutrition, flavor, whole grains, protein

    2: Wheat-allergic* options * NOT same as non-celiac gluten-sensitivity


    1: No change to standard recipe

    Use (10-25%) non-wheat flour(s)/cornmeal 2T. to c. nonwheat flour + wheat flour = 1 c. flour

    Tip: Rye and barley flours offer some gluten

    2: Wheat allergysub only for wheat flour

    1:1 or a blend non-wheat flours amaranth, barley, corn, millet, rye, sorghum,

    OR 7/8 c. rice flour, teff flour, pea or bean flour

    + tsp or more xanthan or guar gum, 2 tsp baking powder per cup non-wheat flour

    A Bakers Dozen Lab Manual

    Labs 1 and 4.

  • Gluten-free (GF) Baking

    Gluten-free Flour Blend Makes 3 cups.

    Brown rice flour 2 cups

    Potato starch 2/3 cup

    Tapioca starch (aka flour)* 1/3 cup

    Xanthan gum 1 tsp.

    Use wire whisk to blend well. *May substitute corn starch for tapioca


    Wheat, barley and rye are NOT GF.

    Use 2 tsp. baking powder per 1 c. wheat- or gluten-free flours

    Use c. almond flour in cookie recipes

    Cream guar/xanthan gums w/butter

    Xanthan gum per cup flour:

    Cookies-1/4 tsp.;

    Cakes, tsp.

    Quick breads, tsp.;

    Yeast breads, 1 to 1 tsp.

    Pizza dough, 2 tsp.

    Guar gum, in similar amounts, is best for severe corn or soy allergies.


    Gluten-free Waffles

    -More at

    -For Ingredients, recipes and mixes: Visit Our Member


  • Whole White Wheat Muffin

    Original recipe: 230 kcal 1/2 c. margarine or butter

    1/2 c. granulated sugar

    1/2 c. light brown sugar

    1 tsp. baking soda

    1 egg

    1/4 tsp. vanilla

    1 c. milk, 2%

    2 c. whole white wheat flour Original:

    Sharons Trial: 180 kcal Cream until light:

    c. unsalted, cold butter

    c. (4T) golden flax meal

    c. Sugar and Stevia Light + 1 T. molasses

    Whisk to blend:

    1 c. whole white wheat flour

    c. cornmeal, sorghum, b.rice or barley flour

    1 tsp. baking soda

    tsp. cinnamon

    Combine all together with:

    c. grated carrot

    c. 1% milk

    c. Cabot 2% Plain Greek-Style Yogurt

    Opt: c. raisins, roasted sunflower or pepitas OR walnuts

  • First Trial- Subs: cornmeal & brown rice flour =1/2 c; 1/3 c. Sugar & Stevia Light; no egg = flax meal + grated carrot; NF Greek-style yogurt and 3T less unsalted butter

    Both are 2.5 oz/72g muffins Trial = 50 less kcal, 65 less mg sodium

    20g whole grain per muffin

    + 60mg potassium

    2g less sat fat

    +400 mg Omega-3

    0.5g more protein

    11g less sugar

    1g more dietary fiber

    14% more Vit A,

    2% more Vit C & Ca

    Test kitchen experiences at

    Download Baking for Special Needs Lesson plan.

  • Baking Temperatures Matter

    Yeast dies at 140 F.

    Starches begin to gelatinize between

    140and 160F.

    Test sweet goods interiors with touch,

    toothpick, testers

    Bake yeast breads to an interior temperature

    of 190F to 210F.

    Raw egg mixtures, batters, dough baked to


    Under-baked products taste starchy; doughy

    Well-baked, sweet

    Crust evenly browned all sides

    Temperature Guide Card

    Video how-to at DIY Baking Do-It-Yourself Channel

  • Store to Preserve Quality

    Cool in a draft-free area on wire racks

    Cool to internal 90F -100F; then wrap

    Never refrigerate baked yeast breads

    Store at room temperature or freeze

    Cool, freeze cookies, or freeze dough

    Thaw wrapped (leave ice crystals in bag)

    at room temp to 95-100F. Guides:

    -A Bakers Pantry of Resources, Lab 13.

    -DIY Baking Channel: 100% Wheat Bread,

    Yeast Bread Handling and Storage.

  • Baking Resources

    Non-profit = free or affordable resources; on-line order form

    Visit our Baking Glossary

    30+ member test kitchens, farm-to-kitchen resources

    Share your knowledge! Annual $1000 educator award Share! #bakingfun

  • Gracias Vielen Dank Merci Thanks Grazie

    King Arthur Flour Company

    Land O Lakes, Inc. Lesaffre Yeast Corporation Nebraska Wheat Board North American Millers Association Rabbit Creek Gourmet Mixes Share Our Strength/Great American Bake Sale Shawnee Milling Company Sokol Company South Dakota Wheat Commission Stafford County Flour Mills Co. Stone-Buhr Flour Company Texas Wheat The J.M. Smucker Company The Sugar Association Ultragrain Flour/Eagle Mills Viddulz Washington Wheat Commission Partners National Extension Association of Family &

    Consumer Sciences (NEAFCS) Wheat Foods Council

    Members Argo Corn Starch

    Bemis, Inc.

    Bobs Red Mill Natural Foods

    C&H Sugar

    Cabot Creamery

    California Raisin Marketing Board

    California Wheat Commission

    Cereal Food Processors

    Chelsea Milling Company

    Clabber Girl Colorado Wheat Commission

    Domino Foods

    Dromedary Mixes

    Farmer Direct Foods, Inc.

    Fleischmanns Yeast

    Gold Medal Flour

    Hodgson Mill, Inc.

    Hopkinsville Milling Company

    House-Autry Mills, Inc.

    Kansas Wheat Commission

    Karo Syrup

  • Gracias Danke Merci Thanks Grazie

    Your questions!

    How to do_______

    What to use______

    Where to find_____ resourceshuman, video, on-line, print

    Questions? Visit Home Baking Association: Ask the Experts

    Sign Up for Our Newsletters:

    Home Baking Association

    Cabot Creamery Cooperative

    Sharon Davis

    Family & Consumer Sciences Education


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