How to Bake Baking Powder and Baking Soda

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<ul><li><p>7/27/2019 How to Bake Baking Powder and Baking Soda</p><p> 1/48</p><p>How to Bake</p><p>The Art and Science of Baking</p><p>By Dennis R Weaver</p><p>Copyright 2012 by The Prepared Pantry</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 How to Bake Baking Powder and Baking Soda</p><p> 2/48</p><p>Chapter 4</p><p>The Secrets of Using Chemical Leaveners</p><p>Baking Powder and Baking Soda</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 How to Bake Baking Powder and Baking Soda</p><p> 3/48</p><p>Chapter 4</p><p>The Secrets of Using Chemical Leaveners</p><p>Baking Powder and Baking Soda</p><p>Part 1: Chemical Leaveners and How They Work</p><p>Baking Soda</p><p>Baking Powder</p><p>Cream of Tartar</p><p>Other Leaveners</p><p>Part 2: Using Chemical Leaveners</p><p>The Muffin Method</p><p>The Creaming Method</p><p>The Biscuit Method</p><p>Part 3: Learning to Bake with Leaveners</p><p>How to Bake Quick Breads</p><p>How to Bake Muffins</p><p>How to Make Biscuits</p><p>How to Make Scones</p><p>How to Make Cornbread</p><p>Part 4: Recipes</p><p>Blueberry Corn Muffins</p><p>The Perfect Banana Muffin</p><p>Toppings for your Muffins</p><p>Cheddar and Bacon Cornbread</p><p>New England Hermits</p><p>Macadamia White Chocolate Cookies with Raspberry Chips</p><p>Frosted Lemon Poppy Seed Scones</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 How to Bake Baking Powder and Baking Soda</p><p> 4/48</p><p>Strawberry White Chocolate Scones</p><p>Easiest Buttermilk Biscuits</p><p>Cranberry Nut Biscuits</p><p>Cheddar Cheese Biscuits</p><p>Copyright 2005, The Prepared Pantry. All rights reserved.</p><p>The material herein is published by The Prepared Pantry for the private use ofindividuals and may not be used for commercial purposes without the expressconsent of the publisher. The information contained herein is believed accuratebut the publisher makes no warranties, express or implied, and the recipient isusing this information at his or her own risk.</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 How to Bake Baking Powder and Baking Soda</p><p> 5/48</p><p>The Secrets of Using Chemical Leaveners</p><p>The objective of this chapter is to help you understand how chemical leavenerswork; not just baking powder and baking soda, but cream of tartar and otherleaveners. We also need to know the mixing methods associated with these</p><p>leaveners. The first part of this chapter addresses the leaveners and how theywork. The second part of the chapter addresses mixing methods with recipesassociated with each method.</p><p>Part 1: Chemical Leaveners and How They WorkWith yeast as an organic leavener, tiny organisms create carbon dioxide to lift thedough. With the chemical leavenersbaking powder, baking soda, and cream of tartarpowerful chemical reactions create carbon dioxide to lift the batter. In this chapter, youwill learn how those chemical reactions occur and how they leaven our baked goods.</p><p>Baking Soda</p><p>Baking soda is a powerful alkaline used primarily to leaven cookies, muffins, andcakes. Because it is alkaline, it reacts with acids in a batter as soon as it is mixed</p><p>causing bubbling and a thickening of the batter. It does not require the heat of theoven to start the leavening process.</p><p>To understand how baking soda works, try this experiment. (Actually, try this withthe kids or grandkids and teach them about chemical reactions.) Put a littlebaking soda in a cup. Add a little water. As shown in the first picture, there are nobubbles. Now add a little lemon juice to the water and soda mixture. Immediately,you will have a chemical reaction with gas bubbles fizzing out of the cup.</p><p>Carbon dioxide bubbles are formed as soon as the alkaline leavener comes incontact with the acid in the batter. To protect these fragile gas bubbles, do notstir the batter any more than is necessary. Unless the batter is very thin, it will</p><p>hold the gas bubbles for some time and will not need to be baked immediately. Invery thin batters, such as pancake battersespecially as they are stirredthegas bubbles may collapse and the batter may need to be rejuvenated with morebaking soda.</p><p>Generally, only recipes containing an acid call for baking soda. If there is no acidin the batter, there is no chemical reaction. Buttermilk, juices, unalkalized cocoa</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 How to Bake Baking Powder and Baking Soda</p><p> 6/48</p><p>(Dutch cocoa has been alkalized and is not acidic), and molasses are commonacids used to react with soda. The reaction of the alkaline baking soda with anacidic batter has two effects: it creates the carbon dioxide bubbles that leaventhe batter, and it neutralizes the acid in the batter. Neutralizing the acid changesthe tastebuttermilk, for example, no longer has its characteristic acidic tang.</p><p>Typically, recipes use teaspoon baking soda for each cup of flour. Very heavybatters or very acidic ones may use more. Occasionally, drop cookies call formore baking soda but that is to allow the cookie to brown more easily since abatter with a lower pH will brown quicker.</p><p>In the practice recipe, New England Hermits, buttermilk is used as an acid toreact with baking soda. The baking soda neutralizes the buttermilk and the acidicbuttermilk flavor is not apparent. The recipe calls for one teaspoon of bakingsoda for 3 cups of flour.</p><p>Baking Powder</p><p>While baking soda is alkaline, baking powder is a mixture of an alkaline bakingsoda and acids designed to create a neutral compound. It therefore reacts withitself using the moisture of the batter as a catalyst. Like baking soda, this reactioncreates carbon dioxide bubbles. It is designed so that it will not appreciably alterthe pH of the batter or leave an aftertaste as baking soda will.</p><p>The baking powder generally used in the kitchen is double-acting: it reacts atroom temperature in the presence of moisture and again in the oven in thepresence of heat. The result is the extra lifting power necessary to make a cakelight and airy.</p><p>Different brands of baking powder will react differently depending on the acid-alkaline mixture used. A slow acting baking powder will have little reaction tomoisture alone, but will react rapidly when heated. A fast-acting baking powderwill react significantly as soon as it is mixed with water.</p><p>Again, try an experiment. Add cool water to baking powder. If you get only a fewbubbles, you have a slow acting baking soda. Now put your baking powder</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 How to Bake Baking Powder and Baking Soda</p><p> 7/48</p><p>solution in the microwave. As it heats up, you will see a very rapid expansion ofbubbles.</p><p>(Incidentally, with the baking powders that we experimented with, we got somereaction with a very strong acid like lemon juice but not nearly the reaction thatwe found with baking soda.)</p><p>Often a weakly acidic recipe will call for both baking soda and baking powder.The baking soda will react with the acid in the batter but the reaction will not bestrong enough and is bolstered with the extra baking powder.</p><p>Cream of Tartar</p><p>Cream of tartar is a by-product of the wine-making industry and is derived fromtartaric acid. As an acid, it is the counterpart to baking soda and when the twoare combined in the presence of water, they create a chemical reaction whichproduces carbon dioxide. Therefore, most recipes that call for cream of tartaralso call for baking soda. In some recipes, cream of tartar is used to increase the</p><p>acidity in the batter to preserve the tang of buttermilk or the taste of an acidicjuice used in conjunction with baking soda.</p><p>Other LeavenersThere are other chemical leaveners, though they are rarely used in today's kitchens. Inaddition, mechanical means are used for leavening. Creaming butter and sugar togetherentrains air in the batter. Steam is used to lift products. Egg whites are whipped tocapture tiny air pockets and thereby lighten products.</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 How to Bake Baking Powder and Baking Soda</p><p> 8/48</p><p>Part 2: Using Chemical Leaveners</p><p>In this section, we will learn about three mixing methods using chemicalleaveners.</p><p>The Muffin Method</p><p>The Creaming or Cake Method</p><p>The Biscuit Method</p><p>Muffins, quick breads, and cakes are mixed with either the muffin method or thecreaming method. In the creaming method, we cream the fat (butter orshortening) with the sugar until light and then add the other ingredients. Manycookies use the creaming method. In the muffin method, we mix the liquids andthe dry ingredients separately and then stir them together until just combined.While the recipe will specify one method or the other, there is no reason why you</p><p>cant use the both and see which you like best. The biscuit method involvescutting butter or another fat into a flour mixture before the liquids are added. Thismethod is used primarily for biscuits, scones, and some desserts. If you masterthese three mixing methods, you will be prepared for nearly all recipes usingchemical leaveners.</p><p>In Part 3, we will learn about making specific products with illustrative recipes.</p><p>The Muffin Method</p><p>The muffin method is used for making muffins, quick breads, and some cakes. Itis quick and easy. Mix the dry ingredients together. Mix the wet ingredientstogether (including the eggs) then add the wet mixture to the dry mixture with a</p><p>spatula and youre ready to bake. (Dont even break out your electric mixer. Stirthe two mixtures together with a spatula only until combinednot lump freesothat the gluten in the flour will not be developed.) If the recipe calls for butter orshortening, either substitute vegetable oil or melt the butter and add it to theliquids. (In our opinion, it is better to use oil or melted butter than meltedshortening.)</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 How to Bake Baking Powder and Baking Soda</p><p> 9/48</p><p>Steps in the Muffin Method</p><p>Whisk all the wet ingredients together, including the eggs and oil or meltedbutter.</p><p>Whisk the dry ingredients together.</p><p>Add the wet ingredients to the dry ingredients. Stir with a spatula until justmoistened.</p><p>Place in tins and bake immediately as set forth in the recipe.</p><p>Busy morning tomorrow? Use the muffin method.</p><p>One advantage of the muffin method is that both the dry and the wet ingredientscan be mixed the night before. Store the wet ingredients in a sealed containerinthe refrigerator and then add them to the dry ingredients in the morning andyoure ready to bake. Youll save time on busy mornings.</p><p>The Creaming Method</p><p>The creaming method is the other major mixing method used in many muffin,cookie, and cake recipes. With this method, the sugar is creamed into the fat(butter, margarine, cream cheese, or shortening) to help aerate the batter. Theselittle pockets expand with steam in the hot oven and with the leaveners, lift themuffin, cookie, or cake.</p><p>The creaming method is easy to master and opens a wide array of recipes foryou to bake. This method works best with an electric beater or mixer while the</p><p>muffin method works best by hand. The creaming method has two advantages:The sugar and fat are well-dispersed in the batter, and the entrained air tends tomake for a light, fine crumb in the muffins. The creaming method makes for light,airy muffins though maybe not as tender as the muffin method.</p><p>In the creaming method, place the butter or shortening in the mixing bowl of yourelectric mixture. Add the sugar, spices, and salt and cream the mixture together</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 How to Bake Baking Powder and Baking Soda</p><p> 10/48</p><p>with the paddle attachment of the mixer. (Of course, recipes that call for oilinstead of butter or shortening cannot be creamed unless you substitute butter orshortening.) The objective is to drive the sharp sugar crystals through the butteror shortening creating tiny voids of air in the mixture. This entrained air will helpthe muffins rise.</p><p>Steps in the Creaming Method</p><p>1. With the paddle attachment of an electric mixer, cream together the butter orshortening and sugars, spices, and salt until light.</p><p>2. Add the eggs one at a time, creaming after each.</p><p>3. Add the liquid ingredients and stir them in. Do not over-stir or you may reducethe entrained air in the creamed mixture.</p><p>4. Mix the flour and leavenings together and then add them to the creamedmixture. Mix until just combined.</p><p>5. Place in tins or on trays and bake immediately as set forth in the recipe.</p><p>The Biscuit Method</p><p>The biscuit method is used in most scone and biscuit recipes plus many dessertand pastry recipes. It is sometimes called the pastry method because itincorporates the same technique as for mixing pie dough. (There are somebiscuit recipes that call for using the creaming method but those biscuits turn outto be more cake-like.)</p><p>With this method, the butter or shortening is cut into the flour mixture with apastry knife and then the liquids are mixed in just until combined. In the heat ofthe oven, the butter melts, the water in the butter creates steam, and the productrises into flaky layers.</p><p>You will need a pastry blender(sometimes called a pastry knife) or foodprocessor to mix this. (Many recipes indicate that you may cut the butter in to theflour with two knives. Maybe I lack dexterity but I have trouble doing so.)</p><p>Why use a pastry blender?</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 How to Bake Baking Powder and Baking Soda</p><p> 11/48</p><p>You cant make baked goods such as biscuits, scones, pie crusts, and muffinswithout a pastry blenderat least you cant do so easily. If there is a key tosuccess with the biscuit method, it is this: cut the butter in thoroughlythemixture should look granular with no large particlesand use very cold butter.Generally, the best way to truly incorporate the butter without mashing it into</p><p>oblivion is by using a pastry blender. The goal is to get the dough into the ovenbefore the butter melts.</p><p>Steps in the Biscuit Method</p><p>1. Measure the dry ingredients into a medium-sized bowl. Whisk them thoroughlyto evenly disperse the ingredients.</p><p>2. Cut in the shortening, margarine, or butter with a pastry blender until themixture is granular with particles no larger than kernels of grain. It is important tokeep the butter cold so it isnt incorporated into the flour too early. Youll want thebutter to melt in the oven so the steam can cr...</p></li></ul>


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