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  1. 1. Back-to-School Night Anne Francois AUT 503 July 2015
  2. 2. ASD Culture Looking at ASD as a culture of its own highlights the fact that people within this culture are different and not damaged. Focusing on their differences has led to more productive intervention approaches an d strategies that utilize their considerable strengths. This results in the development of more positive intervention strategies and a greater respect for the people we serve. Thinking about ASD as a culture also helps us to remember that our ultimate goal is their meaningful and productive participation in our society, which is the ultimate goal for each culture in any multicultural society, So respecting differences, identifying strengths, and seeing a meaningful and productive life for all are the main components of our multicultural approach. (Hall, 2013)
  3. 3. Assessment Tools Assessment process A screening is a brief assessment aimed at identifying those infants and/or children who may be at risk for developmental delays due to differences compared with standard expectations for children of the same age range and cultural background (Hall, 2013, cited Losardo & Notari-Syverson, 2001) There are checklists, questionnaires and rating scales that as well as interviews of parents are utilized in addition to observations of children in structured and unstructured environments. Curriculum-based assessment is defined as a methodology whereby (1) assessment is linked to the curriculum and instruction, (2) educational success is evaluated by students progress across key indicators in the curriculum, and (3) the primary purpose to determine students instructional needs. Shapiro &Elliott, 1999,p 383, were cited by Hall, 2013) Once a student is identified by an Individual Educational Plan (IEP) Team, his/her progress is monitored throughout the year and the programming that he/she is receiving is evaluated yearly. IEP Team makes necessary changes and writes a new plan for a one year period. Every three years, the students achievement and needs are re-assessed as part of the IEP re-evaluation and determinations are made by the IEP team. Screening instruments Diagnostic assessment tools Curriculum-based assessments Progress monitoring assessment Program Evaluation
  4. 4. In their article on Social Story Interventions for Students on the Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis , Kokina and Kern cite Gray, 1998, stating Social Stories, first introduced in 1993 by educational consultant and former teacher Carol Gray, are primarily aimed at assisting individuals with ASD with their social difficulties. Given the potential due to the diagnosis of ASD and the often seen poor prognosis for social interactions that may pose potential loneliness, frustration, lack of establishing and maintaining significant social relationships, depression and other possible mental health concerns in individuals with ASD, the primary goal of Social Stories is to address difficulties that may become otherwise debilitating. Grandin and Scariano,1986, are cited by them with evidence to back up the establishment of this tool. Rules of the social world may be confusing and overwhelming even for the high-functioning individuals with ASD. Gray is cited by these same authors in further describing the format and purpose. Social Stories are short stories written with the goal of objectivity sharing important information with individuals with ASD. They explain difficult social situations and concepts in simple words, thereby providing students with practical, tangible social information regarding situations, a person, event, skill, or concept. Furthermore they cite Gray as emphasizing that Social Stories are not a tool for behavior change, but rather, the premise of the intervention is that better social understanding will lead to improvements in behavior and social functioning. Furthermore, Kokina and Kern cite 2004 writing by Gray, giving the criteria for developing a social story, To meet the defining criteria proposed by Gray, a Social Story must include several types of sentences: a.) Descriptive factual sentences used to describe the situation and people involved in it. b.) Perspective descriptions of the reactions, feelings, and responses of others; c.) Directive- statements that identify an appropriate response and guide childs behavior d.) Cooperative sentences to identify what others will do to assist e.) Affirmative statements that enhance the meaning by expressing values or opinions common in a given culture; f.) Control sentences written by the child to identify his/her personal strategies to recall and use information. In order to avoid the story becoming a list of things to do and the story having enough information, Gray, 1998, recommends using the ratio of one directive to two or more sentences of the other types in each social story. These stories are typically written in the first or third person perspective and avoidance of items that are inflexible in order to make literal translation less possible. Terms such as usually, probably and sometimes are used. Gray is cited by these authors to describe that a social story is presented as a written tool, with or without pictures, and read by an adult or the student himself right before a problematic scenario. (Kokina and Kern, pp 812-13) Kokina, A., & Kerns, L. (2010). Social Story Interventions for Students on the Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 40(7), 812-826.
  5. 5. Video modeling Video modeling is when student(s) watch a short clip that may demonstrate appropriate and inappropriate means to respond to a social activity. It may also help to video a student and later replay to discuss what was done correctly and how it can be done better next time. 1:29 Autism Video Modeling-SHARING- from SpectrumKeys.com youtube.com
  6. 6. Social problem- solving strategies Several researchers have suggested that a persons ability to engage in problem-solving thinking improves the ability to cope with everyday social problems.Social performers must a) accurately perceive and interpret social cues, b) select an appropriate strategy for reaching their goal, c) implement their strategy by emitting appropriate motoric responses, and d) coordinate their social performance with other individuals by attending to the ongoing feedback from their social interactions. (McClure, Chinsky, & Larcen)
  7. 7. Social prompt hierarchies that address social situations
  8. 8. Self-monitoring Self-monitoring can be considered a skill acquisition strategy because it teaches the child to monitor his own behavior, but it may also be considered a performance-enhancing technique because through self-monitoring the child is able to enhance the performance of an existing skill, (Bellini, 2011, p 217). Sheridan et al cites Rhode, Jenson, & Reavis, 1994, Self-monitoring entails an individual recording his or her use of appropriate social skills and strategies in untrained conditions. The attainment of social goals can be encouraged through self-monitoring, and is important for generalization purposes. For example, if a child's social goal is to ask another child to play three times during lunch recess, he or she may keep track of each occurrence on a chart or counter. The effectiveness of this strategy is enhanced when reinforcers are included in the way of naturally occurring contingencies or through the recruitment of natural supports (e.g., peers, parents, teachers) who can provide social reinforcement. (Sheridan, Maughan, & Hungelmann, 1999) The two essential elements of self-monitoring are recording ones behavior and delivering reinforcement based on the accuracy of that self-recording, rather than based on desired behaviors. Initially, both teacher and student record the behavior and review it at a predetermined time for accuracy. If the students record matches that of the teacher to the pre-selected criteria, the student receives the reinforcement. If the students record does not match the teachers record, reinforcement is not delivered. (Morrison and Blackburn, p 4) Checklists, charts, and notes to self are three types of self-monitoring techniques that students may utilize on their desks. Video- modeling is also a technique that can be used in conjunction with any one of these strategies. Checklists to monitor task completion may look like this in order for the student to monitor if he has done all the steps of a task. The first example is for completing a worksheet in his general education classroom. This strategy may also be used when playing a game with a peer. In the second example when a student is playing a game with a peer, the checklist will cue the individual as to what expected behavior is needed
  9. 9. Strategies and Ideas Be aware of sensory considerations, students with ASD may be more sensitive to lights, smells, sounds, and temperature. Be aware of anxiety and nervousness in meeting new people, interacting with those that are familiar may be stressful to a child with ASD. Prepare a welcoming classroom that is organized, using color-coding, labeling and visual supports as much as possible will assist in predicting expectations Social stories, social scripts and Power Card Strategy may assist in unexpected changes in schedules or routines. (Boutot, Myles, 2011) Create an environment welcoming of all individuals. Accept each person that you encounter as an unique individual and respect where he or she is in social comfort. Continue to engage and allow others to listen and speak to you. Be patient and allow for time to adjust to different settings and situations.
  10. 10. SOUTH PORTLAND, Maine (NEWS CENTER) -- A center for children and adolescents with autism and other developmental disorders is opening in South Portland. The Center for Autism