autonomous car(driver less car) (self driving car)

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CONTETSIntroductionHistoryVehicular hardwareWorkingComparisonPotential advantagesPotential obstaclesOfficial predictionconclusion

Vehicular AutomationVehicular automation involves the use of MechatronicsArtificial Intelligenceto assist a vehicle's operator.

These features and the vehicles employing them may be labeled as intelligent or smart

IntroductionAn autonomous car is also called as self driving car, driverless car or robotic car, an autonomous vehicle capable of fulfilling the human transportation capabilities of a traditional car.

As an autonomous vehicle, it is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input.

ABOUTDriver less car is a project by Google that involves the developing technology for autonomous carThe software powering car is called Google chauffeurThis project is being led by Google engineer and teamThis team has 15 engineers

Vehicle HardwareRADAR Video cameraLIDARGPSProcessorsWheel Speed Sensors

RADARTraditional RADAR sensors are used to detect dangerous objects in the vehicles path that are more than 100 meters away.

Accident-Prevention systems trigger alerts when they detect something in a blind cars blind spot.

The radar chirps between 10 and 11 GHz over a 5 millisecond period, transmitting the radar signal from a centrally located antenna cone.

Two receive cones, separated by approximately 14 inches, receive the reflected radar energy.

Video cameraA video camera installed at the top of the front glass near the rear-view mirror.These cameras are used to detect the traffic lights , pedestrians, animals etc.

It is also used to identify road markings and traffic signals.

LIDARThe Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) which is mounted on the roof of the vehicle is the most important device in the Autonomous vehicles.

The LIDAR consists of an emitter, mirror and receiver.

The emitter sends out a LASER beam that bounces off a mirror that is rotating along with the cylindrical housing at 10 revolutions per minute.

After bouncing off objects, the LASER beam returns to the mirror and is bounced back towards the receiver, where it can be interpreted into data.

The vehicle can then generate a map of its surroundings and use the map to avoid objects.


GPSThe global positioning system(GPS) is a space based satellite navigation system that provides location and the time information.But the data alone with the GPS system is less accurate so this data is combined with the outputs from the IMU(inertial measurement unit)IMU is an electronic device which measures and gives the information about vehicles velocity


Some 7 dual-core 2.13 GHz processors and 2Gb of RAM are needed to make sense of the data collected by the cars instruments.

Wheel Speed SensorsWheel Speed Sensors measure the road-wheel speed and direction of rotation. These sensors provide input to a number of different automotive systems including the anti-lock brake system and electronic stability control.

WorkingThe signal from the sensors are used by the Electronic Control Unit for decision making using a software code.

Based on the information from the sensors, the Electronic Control Unit gives signal to the actuators, which in turn control the vehicle.

Also, real time information of the surroundings is output to the user interface located inside the vehicle.

Artificial IntelligenceGoogle Maps and the hardware sensors data are sent to the AI.

AI then determines:

how fast to acceleratewhen to slow down/stopwhen to steer the wheel

Goal of AI

The agent's goal is to take the passenger to its desired destination safely and legally.

Block diagram

Potential AdvantagesMinimize accidents rates in citiesThe system will allow the commuters to do other things while travelling such as reading or sleeping.Increased roadway capacity and reduced traffic congestionRelief of vehicle occupants from driving and navigation chores.Higher speed limit for autonomous cars.Alleviation of parking scarcity. Reduction of space required for vehicle parking.Reduction in the need for traffic police and vehicle insurance.Smoother ride.

Potential Obstacles

As of August 28,2014 the latest prototype cannot Handle heavy rain and snow covered roads.Chris Urmson of Google said That the LIDAR technology cannot spot a police officer signaling car to stopVehicles are unable to differentiate between crumpled up paper and a rockLoss of driver-related jobs Temporary construction zones which are not posted to any maps or data bases.According to Google, projects having these issues fixed by 2020.

Google Driverless CarToyota Prius modified to operate as a Google driverless car

Official PredictionsBy 2014, Israeli company Mobileye expects to release semi-autonomous car technology.

By 2015, Audi plans to market vehicles that can autonomously steer, accelerate and brake at lower speeds, such as in traffic jams.

By 2016, Mobileye expects to release fully autonomous car technology.

By 2017, Google expects to release their autonomous car technology.

By 2020, Volvo envisages having cars in which passengers would be immune from injuries.

By 2020, Mercedes-Benz, Audi, Nissan and BMW all expect to sell autonomous cars.

Traffic Ahead Many carmakers developing prototype vehicles that are capable of driving autonomously in certain situation.BMWz

NissanGoogleGeneral Motors Vehicles 5 Series (modified) S 500 Intelligent driver research vehicle Leaf EV (modified)Prius and Lexus (modified)Cadillac SRX (modified) KEYTechnologies

Video camera tracks lane markings and reads road signs.Read sensors detect objects ahead.Side laser scanners.Ultrasonic sensors.Differential GPS.Very accurate map. Stereo camera sees objects ahead in 3-DAdditional cameras reads road signs and traffic lights.Short and long range radar.Infrared camera,Ultrasonic sensors.

Front and side radar.CameraFront, side and rear laser sensor,Fore wide angle cameras shows the driver the cars surroundings. LIDAR on the roof detects objects around the car in 3-DCamera helps detect objects.Front and side radar.Inertial measuring unit tracks position, Wheel encoder tracks movement.Very accurate map.

Several laser sensors.RadarDifferential GPSCamerasVery accurate map.

ConclusionAlthough legal issues connected to driverless cars have raised many questions, as driverless car is still in research, hope we can see driverless car running on roads soon which would overcome all these obstacles and issues in the future, lets wait and seeCould be ready for market as little a 4-5 years

References graphics

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