# atomic structure notes everything is made of atoms. atoms are the smallest part of matter. atoms are...

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Atomic Structure NotesEverything is made of atoms. Atoms are the smallest part of matter. Atoms are made up of 3 subatomic particles (particles smaller than the atom itself): electrons, protons, and neutrons.

This model of the atom looks like a solar system. The nucleus, which contains the protons and neutrons in the center, would represent the sun. The electrons are the planets spinning around the nucleus.

Neutral particles in the nucleus; gives mass to the atom, but not charge.Negatively charged particles; outside the nucleus; can be gained or lost to and from other atoms; very small mass: 1/2000th of a proton

Center of the atom; contains protons and neutrons. 99.9% of mass of an atomCount the protons to find out what element this is: # of Protons: Element:Positively charged particles; in the nucleus; determines what element an atom is.

John Dalton in 1808 published a theory of the atom that had these important points:All atoms of a particular element are the same.Atoms of different elements have different properties, mass, and chemical reactivity.Atoms are not changed by chemical reactions, just rearranged in order or number.

Niels Bohr in 1913 hypothesized that electrons traveled in fixed orbits around the atoms nucleus.

Element NameChemical SymbolAtomic Number(number of protons)Atomic MassReading Element Tiles7When thinking about the small masses of atoms, scientists found that even grams were not small enough to use for measurement. The unit of measurement used for atomic particles is the atomic mass unit (amu). The mass of a proton or a neutron is almost equal to 1 amu.

Atomic massweighted average mass (of the mixture of an elements *isotopes) Formula: # of Neutrons = Atomic Mass (Rounded to whole #) Atomic number

Use the atomic mass and the atomic number to find the number of neutrons.9The number of protons tells you what type of atom you have and vice versa. Example: Every carbon atom has six protons and all atoms with six protons are carbon atoms.Atomic numberthe number of protons in an atom

In a neutral atom there is one electron for every proton.# of electrons = # of protonsBohrs Model

Electric charges work just like magnets; opposites attract and like charges repel. Since protons are positive and electrons are negative, protons attract electrons. Protons repel protons; electrons repel electrons.

Because of electron-to-electron repulsion, electrons dont crowd around the nucleus as their number increase. Instead, they fill up orbits. Each orbit can hold a certain number of electrons, then that orbit is full. This is because even though as the number of protons increases (attraction), the number of electrons also increases (repulsion).

***Electron Distribution: The most inner orbit can hold two electrons. The second orbit can hold up to eight electrons to be considered full. The 3rd orbit, or energy level, can hold eighteen electrons but only needs eight to be considered full.

IsotopesAtoms of the same element will always have the same atomic number, but may have different mass numbers. Atoms of the same element, which differ in mass number, are called isotopes. Their atomic masses differ, however, because they have slightly different number of neutrons. The atomic mass of any element is the average of the weighted sum of the atomic masses of its various isotopes.

Example: One isotope of an elementfor example, carbon-12is far more abundant than the others because natural processes favor that particular isotope. These three carbon isotopes all have the same number of protons and thus the same atomic number, 6.

Lewis StructureThe Lewis Structure (also called an electron dot diagram) uses the symbol of the element and dots to represent the valence electrons (electrons in the outer energy level).

To make an electron dot diagram:Write the symbol. Write a dot to symbolize each electron.Rule: The electrons will not pair up until they have to.

Ex: Lets start with Phosphorus P.Phosphorus has an Atomic Number of 15 (number of protons), thus, having 15 electrons.Draw a Bohrs model of Phosphorus.

How many valence electrons are there? _____Place the first four electrons around the symbol starting at the top.

Then place the remaining electron starting on the top again.

Ex: Try Magnesium Mg.

# of electrons = _____

Bohrs model of Magnesium:

# of valence electrons = _____

Lewis Structure of Magnesium: simplest and purest substance that CANNOT be broken down or changed into simpler substances. smallest particle of an element basic building block of matterare made ofSubatomic particleslocated in thelocated in the 99.9 % of mass shells or orbitals= Atomic Numberhas a ___ chargehas a ___ chargehas a ___ chargesum of isMass NumberThe average of all known isotopes is theIn a neutral atom the # of ____________ equals the # of _____________Atomic Structure Notes - Learning LogEverything is made of ________.Atoms are the smallest part of____________.Atoms are made up of 3 subatomic particles called ____________, ____________, _____________.The negatively charged particles are called _________________.The electrons are located _________________ the nucleus.The electrons can be ____________ or ____________.Electrons are ( SMALLER or LARGER ) than a proton.The positively charged particles are in the ____________.Protons are important because they determine what _______________ an atom is.The protons and the ______________ are in the nucleus.The neutrons provide _____________, but not ____________.___________ ____________ published the theory of the atom that had these important points:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The atomic number is equal to ___________________________.The mass number is equal to _____________________________.Number of Protons is equal to ____________________________.Opposites charges attract and like repel; therefore, protons __________ electrons but protons ___________ protons; electrons ______________ electrons.Sketch a picture showing how attraction and repulsion work.

Explain the distribution of electrons in their orbits. ____________________________________________________

AttractionRepulsion

Sketch hydrogen showing the equality of electrons and protons.

Sketch the correct filling of the orbits with the lithium model.Find the missing number ofElementSymbolAtomic NumberAtomic MassNumber of ProtonsNumber of NeutronsNumber of ElectronsHydrogenH11.0HeliumHe24.0LithiumLi36.9BerylliumBe49.0BoronB510.8CarbonC612.0NitrogenN714.0OxygenO816.0FluorineF919.0NeonNe1020.2SodiumNa1123.0ChlorineCl1735.5LeadPb82207.2UraniumU92238.0

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