Asymmetric warming effects on N dynamics and productivity in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

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  • This article was downloaded by: [University of South Florida]On: 21 October 2014, At: 12:05Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House,37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

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    Asymmetric warming effects on N dynamics andproductivity in rice (Oryza sativa L.)Xiaojin Xiea, Yaohong Zhanga, Renying Lia, Xihua Yangb, Shuanghe Shena, Yunxuan Baoa,Xiaohui Shena & Xiaodong Jiangaa Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Agricultural Meteorology, Nanjing University of InformationScience and Technology, 219 Ningliu Road, Nanjing, 210044, P.R. Chinab New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage, 10 Valentine Ave, Parramatta, 2150,AustraliaPublished online: 26 Jun 2014.

    To cite this article: Xiaojin Xie, Yaohong Zhang, Renying Li, Xihua Yang, Shuanghe Shen, Yunxuan Bao, Xiaohui Shen &Xiaodong Jiang (2014) Asymmetric warming effects on N dynamics and productivity in rice (Oryza sativa L.), Soil Science andPlant Nutrition, 60:4, 530-539, DOI: 10.1080/00380768.2014.907531

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  • ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Asymmetric warming effects on N dynamics and productivity in rice(Oryza sativa L.)

    Xiaojin XIE1, Yaohong ZHANG1, Renying LI1, Xihua YANG2, Shuanghe SHEN1,Yunxuan BAO1, Xiaohui SHEN1 and Xiaodong JIANG1

    1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Agricultural Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, 219 NingliuRoad, Nanjing, 210044, P.R. China and 2New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage, 10 Valentine Ave, Parramatta,2150, Australia

    Abstract

    Climate warming exhibits strong diurnal variations, with higher warming rates being observed at nighttime,which significantly affects rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth and grain yield. The objective of this study was todetermine the effects of asymmetric warming (all-day warming, AW; daytime warming from 07:00 to 19:00,DW; nighttime warming from 19:00 to 07:00, NW, and a control, CK) on rice nitrogen (N) dynamics andproductivity. Two rice bucket warming experiments were performed in Nanjing in Jiangsu Province, China,using the free air temperature increase (FATI) technique. The daily mean temperatures in the rice canopy in theAW, DW and NW plots were 2.0, 1.1 and 1.3C higher than those in the rice canopy in the CK plots,respectively. The results indicated that the total N accumulation of rice was 8.2740.53% higher in thewarming treatment than in the control during the jointing, anthesis and maturity stages. However, therewas no significant difference detected among the three warming treatments. The warming treatment substan-tially decreased N translocation efficiency, leading to the retention of more N in the plant stems during grainfilling. The warming treatment also decreased the N harvest index, N utilization efficiency based on grain yieldand N utilization efficiencies based on biomass in both growing seasons. The warming treatment significantlyincreased the aboveground biomass (9.2616.18%) in the jointing stage but decreased it (2.759.63%) in thematurity stage. Although DW increased the carbon (C) gain by photosynthesis andNW increased the C loss bynight respiration, the daytime higher-temperature treatment affected rice photosynthesis and reduced itsphotosynthetic rate and product. This effect may be one of the primary reasons for the insignificant differencein the aboveground biomass between the DW and NW treatments. In the AW, DW and NW plots, the grainyield was reduced by an average of 10.07, 5.05 and 7.89%, respectively, across both years. The effectivepanicles and grains per spike tended to decrease in the warmed plots, whereas irregular changes in the1000-grain weight were observed. Our results suggest that under the anticipated climate warming, riceproductivity would further decline in the Yangtze River Basin.

    Key words: Free air temperature increase (FATI), asymmetric warming, nitrogen, grain yield, Oryza sativa L.

    INTRODUCTION

    Climate warming is one of the most significant environ-mental problems in the modern world. The global

    average temperature has increased by 0.56 to 0.92Cover the past century, and it is now predicted that theglobal temperature will be 1.4 to 5.8C warmer by theyear 2100 (IPCC 2007). Indeed, air temperatures havebeen observed to increase rapidly, a process that showsdistinct asymmetry: the increase of the minimum tem-perature at night is nearly twice that of the maximumtemperature in the daytime (Harvey 1995; Easterlinget al. 1997). Such unprecedented changes in the differ-ential increase of the daytime/nighttime temperature

    Correspondence: X. XIE, Jiangsu Key Laboratory ofAgricultural Meteorology, Nanjing University of InformationScience and Technology, 219 Ningliu Road, Nanjing, 210044,P.R. China. Email: xxj_200210@sina.comReceived 22 July 2013.Accepted for publication 19 March 2014.

    Soil Science and Plant Nutrition (2014), 60, 530539 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00380768.2014.907531

    2014 Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

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  • could have important effects on crop production (Lobelland Asner 2003; Tao et al. 2008; Fang et al. 2012).Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the major grain produced in

    China, accounting for approximately 40% of the totalgrain output. However, rice production is markedlyaffected by elevated air temperature. Safe rice productionhas aroused an extremely large amount of interest fromthe Chinese government and researchers (Cheng et al.2008; Dong et al. 2011). To date, many studies havebeen conducted to examine the effects of elevated airtemperature on rice growth and yield (Lobell et al.2008; Cheng et al. 2010). For example, Peng et al.(2004) showed that the rice yield decreased by 10%under a 1C increase in the daily minimum temperature.Sheehy et al. (2006) found that the rice yield declined by13.70% under a 1C elevation of the daily minimumtemperature by analyzing a crop model. Dong et al.(2011) also observed that nocturnal warming signifi-cantly decreased rice yield and aboveground biomass.These results show that warming treatments shorten therice growth stage, decrease photosynthetic capacityand reduce grain yield. On the other hand, elevatedair temperature could potentially enhance nitrogen (N)soil mineralization and thereby alter the N uptake ofplant roots (Patil et al. 2010). Furthermore, internalnutrient utilization would likely be affected by thedifference in physiological processes as a result of ele-vated temperature (Prieto et al. 2009), which exerts aprofound impact on plant production (Li et al. 2011).Few studies have reported on the effects of elevated airtemperature on N uptake in crops (Jonassona et al.2004; Yang et al. 2010). Hence, experimental data onthe effect of asymmetric warming on rice N dynamicsand productivity are crucial for developing agriculturaladaptation measures to cope with the potential impactsof climate warming on the agro-ecosystem on a regionaland global scale.N uptake is an important plant process that deter-

    mines photosynthetic capacity and plant productivity.Numerous studies, mostly conducted in natural ecosys-tems without N fertilization, have shown that warmingtreatments can either increase or decrease the N accumu-lation of the studied plants. For example, An et al.(2005) observed that a 4-year experimental warmingperiod increased grass N accumulation by 520% dueto the increases in the aboveground biomass exceedingthe decreases in the leaf N concentration. However,other studies, conducted in growth chambers, havedemonstrated that high temperatures decrease bothaboveground biomass and leaf N concentration (Xuand Zhou 2005), leading to a reduction in plant Naccumulation. Recently, studies conducted with ricecrops in controlled-environment chambers have indi-cated that high nighttime temperatures have no impact

    on whole-plant N concentration but significantlyincrease N absorption (Cheng et al. 2010). However,no study has examined the effects of asymmetric warm-ing on N accumulation and translocation in rice.Artificial simulation experiments have recently been

    conducted in plant growth chambers or greenhouses,but the temperature increases generated by thesedevices are set in a manner that is inconsistent withactual climate warming. It is notably difficult to simu-late the features of real climate warming (Klein et al.2005; Cheng et al. 2009). Thus, a field experiment wasperformed in Nanjing, China, to investigate the effectsof asymmetric warming on the rice biomass and grainyield and the nutrient utilization dynamics of theHuaidao5 rice cultivar using a free air temperatureincrease (FATI) apparatus. Our principal objectiveswere (1) to determine the effects of asymmetric warm-ing on rice grain yield and yield components and (2) tocharacterize the N dynamics in response to asymmetricwarming.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS

    Experimental designTwo experiments (Experiment 1 in 2011 and Experiment2 in 2012) were conducted at the agro-meteorologicalexperimental station (3207N, 11850E) of NanjingUniversity of Information Science and Technology inJiangsu Province, China, during the rice-growing seasonfrom mid-May to October. This region has a warm,semi-humid monsoon climate. The average yearly preci-pitation is 1100 mm. The average air temperature from2000 to 2010 was 16.6C, which is 1.4 and 0.7Cwarmer than that in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively.The average sunshine period is over 1900 h, and thefrost-free period is 237 d.The rice cultivar used in this study was Huaidao5 (con-

    ventional Japonica rice), which is widely cultivated inNanjing, China. In both study years, sowing was carriedout on May 18. One seedling was transplanted in eachplastic bucket (25 cm inside diameter, 28 cm height) filledwith 8.0 kg Hapli-stagnic gleysol on June 20. The soil wascollected from the plow layer (~15 cm of the top layer) of arice field in Pukou, Nanjing, China, that contained9.28 g kg1 organic carbon (C), 1.06 g kg1 total N,6.89 mg kg1 available phosphorus (P) and 125 mg kg1

    exchangeable potassium (K). A total of 0.68 g N perbucket [CO(NH2)2] carbamide was split-applied: 50%applied at transplanting, 25% at jointing and 25% atbooting. P and K were applied after planting as calciumsuperphosphate and potassium chloride at a rate of 0.15 gP per bucket and 0.37 g K per bucket, respectively. Handweeding was conducted before sowing to control weeds.

    Asymmetric warming, N dynamics, productivity, rice 531

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  • Pesticides (imidacloprid) and fungicides (tebuconazole)were sprayed to control pests and diseases as needed.

    Experimental design and warming treatmentFollowing the FATI apparatus design developed by Nijset al. (1996), Kimball (2005) and Dong et al. (2011), wedesigned an experimental warming apparatus with two1-kW far-infrared heating tubes (1.5 m long, 60 cm apart)made by Shanghai Halo Infrared Technology Co. Ltd.,China. They were placed 0.5 m (transplanting stage) to1.7 m (flowering stage) apart on steel column pipe sup-ports and surrounded by a resin film that allowed for 98%light transmittance and was open on the top. The experi-ment involved four treatments (all-day warming, AW;daytime warming from 07:00 to 19:00, DW; nighttimewarming from 19:00 to 07:00, NW, and a control, CK)and covered the time from transplanting to maturation.Each treatment included three replicate plots, which wereplaced in a randomized block design. Twenty-four buck-ets of rice (four buckets of rice were placed in width, sixbuckets of rice were placed in length) were grown in oneplot (1.2 m width 2.0 m length). Also, all buckets

    positions were not changed during the growth period.The apparatus had a 4-m2 heating area and was able toinduce remarkable increases in temperature (Dong et al.2011). The daily mean temperatures of the crop canopy inthe AW, DW and NW plots were 2.0, 1.1 and 1.3Chigher than those in the CK plots (Experiment 1), respec-tively, and 2.0, 0.9 and 1.2C higher than those in the CKplots (Experiment 2), respectively. The canopy tempera-ture data were obtained using a temperature recorderinstrument (Hangzhou Zeda Instrument Co. Ltd.,China), which could automatically record the instanta-neous value every 30 min.Taking Experiment 2 as an example, Fig. 1a displays

    the trends of canopy temperature variation during theflowering stage. It was observed that the changes in thecanopy temperature under the three warming treatmentswere similar to those in the CK plots, which showed thatthe warming systems did not change the diurnal varia-tion of the field temperature. The relative canopy tem-peratures under various scenarios were AW > NW > DW> CK, and the temperature variation trends for theremaining development stages were similar to those forthe flowering stage. The daily mean temperatures of the

    Figure 1 Trends of diurnal mean temperature variation during (a) the flowering stage and (b) all growing stages of the rice (Oryzasativa L.) canopy under different warming treatments in 2012.

    532 X. Xie et al.

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  • crop canopy throughout the entire growth stage in theAW, DW and NW plots w...

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