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AP Gov Exam Review. Key terms, charts and graphs. The Policymaking System. The process by which policy comes into being and evolves over time. The Constitution. Foundations The philosophy of John Locke Second Treatise on Civil Government Natural rights - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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AP Gov Exam ReviewKey terms, charts and graphsThe Policymaking System

The process by which policy comes into being and evolves over time2The six items are hyperlinked to their own slide. A return button is also on the slide.The ConstitutionFoundationsThe philosophy of John Locke Second Treatise on Civil GovernmentNatural rightsConsent of the governed (Social Contract Theory)Limited governmentDeclaration of IndependenceConcepts of: Democracy and Republicanism

The Agenda in PhiladelphiaThe Equality IssuesEquality and Representation of the StatesNew Jersey Planequal representation in statesVirginia Planpopulation-based representationConnecticut CompromiseSlaveryThree-fifths compromisePolitical Equality and voting left to states4The Madisonian Model

5The Madisonian Model

6Individual RightsOnly these protections were includedNo suspension of Writ of Habeas CorpusNo Bills of attainderProhibition of Ex post facto lawsNo religious qualifications for public officeTrial by jury in most casesStrict standards for charges of TreasonOmission of others led to demand for a Bill of RightsRatifying the Constitution

8Constitutional Change

9Defining Federalism

10Judicial ReviewMarbury v. Madison 1803 Established the Judiciarys ability to interpret the constitutionality of the laws of CongressMcCulloch v. Maryland Strengthened the implied powers of the Federal GovernmentGibbons v. Ogden Affirmed the Federal Governments authority to regulate interstate commerce

The Constitutional Basis of Federalism

12Intergovernmental Relations TodayFiscal Federalism The Grant System: Distributing the Federal PieCategorical Grants: federal grants that can be used for specific purposes; grants with strings attachedProject Grants: based on meritFormula Grants: amount varies based on formulasBlock Grants: federal grants given more or less automatically to support broad programsGrants are given to states and local governments.13Civil LibertiesThe legal constitutional protections against the government (Congress shall make no law . . . )

The Bill of Rights and the StatesWritten to restrict the national governmentCongress shall make no lawBarron v. Baltimore (1833)Most have been incorporated through the 14th Amendment, and now restrict state and local governmentsFirst Amendment protection of speech first incorporated to states in Gitlow v. New York (1925)

The Bill of RightsFreedom of ReligionEstablishment clauseFree exercise clauseLemon TestFreedom of ExpressionPrior restraintFree speech and public orderFree press and fair trialObscenity Miller TestLibel and slanderSymbolic speechCommercial SpeechRegulation of the Public airwaysFreedom of AssemblyRight to assembleRight to associateRight to Bear ArmsMilitia, right to bear armsDefendants Rights MirandaSearches and seizures Exclusionary RuleSelf-incriminationRight to counselTrials Cruel and unusual punishmentRight to Privacy? 9th Amend. (Penumbra)

15The Incorporation Doctrine(Sometimes referred to as selective incorporation)

16Civil RightsProtected mostly through the 14th Amendment

17Civil RightsRacial SegregationDe jure & de facto Key Cases & LawsPlessy v. Ferguson (1896) Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Civil Rights Act of 1964 Voting Rights Act of 1965

Civil RightsGender19th AmendmentERAComparable Worth Title IXAmericans w/Disabilities ActLawrence v. Texas (2003) DOMAaffirmative action Regents of the University of California v Bakke (1978) Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)

The American People

20The American People

The Regional ShiftPopulation shift from east to westReapportionment: the process of reallocating seats in the House of Representatives every 10 years on the basis of the results of the censusRedistricting: the redrawing of district lines after the censusGerrymandering: the manipulation of district lines to favor ones party21Public Opinion & MediaMore Key Terms:exit polldemographypolitical socializationpolitical ideologygender gapmelting pot minority majoritysamplesampling errorrandom samplingrandom digit dialingpolitical participationprotestcivil disobedience

high-tech politicsprint mediatrial balloonsmass mediabroadcast mediasoundbitesmedia eventnarrowcastingtalking headpress conferenceschainspolicy agendainvestigative journalismbeats policy entrepreneurs

How American Learn About Politics: Political SocializationPolitical Learning Over a LifetimeAging increases political participation and strength of party attachment.

23What Americans Value: Political Ideologies

24The Party in the Electorate

25Party Coalitions

26Money and CampaigningThe Maze of Campaign Finance ReformsSoft Money: political contributions (not subject to contribution limits) earmarked for party-building expenses or generic party advertisingThe McCain-Feingold Act (2002) banned soft money, increased amount of individual contributions, and limited issue ads.527s: independent groups that seek to influence political process but are not subject to contribution restricts because they do not directly seek election of particular candidates27Money and CampaigningThe Proliferation of PACsPolitical Action Committees (PACs): created by law in 1974 to allow corporations, labor unions and other interest groups to donate money to campaigns; PACs are registered with and monitored by the FEC.As of 2006 there were 4,217 PACs.PACs contributed over $372.1 million to congressional candidates in 2006.PACs donate to candidates who support their issue.PACs do not buy candidates, but give to candidates who support them in the first place.28Red & Blue States

29Whether to Vote: A Citizens First Choice

From Government in America, 13th edition.30Whether to Vote: A Citizens First Choice

31How Americans Vote: Explaining Citizens Decisions

32Interest GroupsPluralist Theory Elite Theory Hyperpluralist Theory Downs Model:Potential group Actual group Collective good Free-rider problem Selective benefits Olsens Law of Large GroupsStrategies employedLobbying Electioneering Litigation Going public Iron Triangles (subgovernments)

Congressional ElectionsWho Wins Elections?Incumbents: Those already holding office.

How Congress is Organized to Make PolicyThe House435 members, 2-year terms of officeInitiates all revenue bills, more influential on budgetHouse Rules CommitteeLimited debatesThe Senate100 members, 6-year terms of officeGives advice & consent, more influential on foreign affairsUnlimited debates (filibuster)American BicameralismHow Congress is Organized to Make PolicyThe HouseLed by Speaker of the Houseelected by House membersPresides over HouseMajor role in committee assignments and legislationAssisted by majority leader and whipsThe SenateFormally lead by Vice PresidentReally lead by Majority Leaderchosen by party membersAssisted by whipsMust work with Minority leaderCongressional LeadershipHow Congress is Organized to Make Policy

How Congress is Organized to Make PolicyCommittees and SubcommitteesStanding committees: subject matter committees that handle bills in different policy areasJoint committees: a few subject-matter areasmembership drawn from House and Senate Conference committees: resolve differences in House and Senate billsSelect committees: created for a specific purpose, such as the Watergate investigationThe Congressional Process

The Presidents

Presidential Powers

Running the Government: The Chief Executive

Running the Government:The Chief ExecutiveThe Executive OfficeMade up of policymaking and advisory bodiesThree principle groups: NSC, CEA, OMB

Presidential Leadership of Congress: The Politics of Shared Powers

Presidential Leadership of Congress: The Politics of Shared Powers

Presidential Leadership of Congress: The Politics of Shared Powers

Power from the People:The Public PresidencyPresidential ApprovalReceives much effort by the White HouseProduct of many factors: predispositions, honeymoon, rally eventsChanges can highlight good or bad decisions

The PresidencyOther key termsTwenty-second Amendmentimpeachment WatergateTwenty-fifth Amendmentpresidential coattailsWar Powers Resolutionlegislative vetoCrisis manager

The Federal BudgetKey Termsbudgetdeficitexpendituresrevenuesfederal debtincome taxpayroll taxesSixteenth Amendmenttax expendituresSocial Security ActMedicareincrementalismuncontrolled expendituresentitlementsHouse Ways and Means CommitteeSenate Finance CommitteeCongressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974Congressional Budget Officebudget resolutionreconciliationauthorization billappropriations billcontinuing resolutions

The Budgetary Process

The Budgetary Process

The Federal BureaucracyKey Terms:patronagePendleton Civil Service Actcivil servicemerit principleHatch ActGS (Gender Schedule) ratingSenior Executive ServicePlum BookIndependent regulatory commission (Ex. SEC)government corporations (Ex. Post Office)independent executive agency (Ex. NASA)policy implementationstandard operating proceduresadministrative discretionstreet-level bureaucratsregulationderegulationcommand-and-control policy (stick)incentive system (carrot) executive ordersiron triangles

The Bureaucrats

53How Bureaucracies Are Organized

54How Bureaucracies Are Organized

55Understanding Bureaucracies

56The Structure of the Federal Judicial System

57The Structure of the Federal Judicial System

58The Structure of the Federal Judicial System

59The Courts as PolicymakersAccepting CasesUse the rule of four to choose casesIssues a writ of certiorari to call up the caseSupreme Court accepts few cases each year

60The Federal CourtsMore key terms:Criminal lawCivil Justice System (civil court