An introduction to lean six sigma

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An Introduction to Lean Six Sigma

http://vimeo.com/24784020

An Introduction to Lean Six SigmaWe dont know what we dont know.We cant act on what we dont know.We wont know until we search.We wont search for what we dont question.We dont question what we dont measure.Hence, we just dont know.Dr. Mikel Harry

Process Improvement

Lean Six Sigma Process ImprovementLean Six Sigma Seeks to improve the quality of manufacturing and business process by:identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and variation.Identifying and removing sources of waste within the processFocusing on outputs that are critical to customers

Lean Six Sigma Process ImprovementLSS is a management philosophy that seeks to drive a quality culture change through a multi-level based program

LevelTraining

Green BeltLSS Methodology and basic tool set

Black BeltGreen Belt content plus advanced data analysis

Master Black BeltBlack belt content plus program management, leadership skills, some advanced tools

193019501900LEANSix SigmaFord Assembly Line Guinness Brewery

Shewhart Introduces SPC

Gilbreth, Inc.Management TheoryIndustrial Engineering

Deming14 Points7 Deadly DiseasesToyota Production System

Lean Six Sigma Timeline

L6s

Transition effect for timeline, slide 1 (Basic)

Tip: This transition works well for graphics that horizontally span more than one slide.

To reproduce the shape effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Block Arrows click Chevron (second row, eighth option from the left). On the slide, drag to draw a long, horizontal chevron shape.Select the chevron. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, do the following:In the Shape Height box, enter 0.7. In the Shape Width box, enter 9.48.Drag the chevron until the right end is beyond the right edge of the slide, and the left end of the chevron is approximately one inch to the right of the left edge of the slide.Select the chevron. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the arrow next to Shape Fill, point to Gradient, and then click More Gradients. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Up (second row, second option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until a total of four gradient stops appear in the drop-down list. Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left)Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 36%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 213, Green: 219, Blue: 221. Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 73%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 178, Green: 190, Blue: 194. Select Stop 4 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 213, Green: 219, Blue: 221. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and then select No line in the Line Color pane.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane, and then do the following in the Shadow pane: Click the button next to Presets, and then under Outer click Offset Bottom (first row, second option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 60%.In the Size box, enter 100%.In the Blur box, enter 4 pt.In the Angle box, enter 90.In the Distance box, enter 3 pt. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click 3-D Format in the left pane. In the 3-D Format pane, under Bevel, click the button next to Top, and then under Bevel click Circle (first row, first option from the left). Next to Top, in the Width box, enter 4 pt, and in the Height box, enter 4 pt.On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box, and then on the slide, drag to draw the text box.Enter text in the text box, select the text, and then on the Home tab, in the Font group, select Gill Sans MT Condensed from the Font list, enter 26 in the Font Size box, click Bold, click the arrow next to Font Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1, Darker 50% (sixth row, first option from the left).On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click Center to center the text in the text box.Select the text box. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, and then click Duplicate. Repeat this process to create a total of three text boxes.Click in each of the two duplicate text boxes, and then edit the text.Drag the text boxes onto the chevron shape to form a row. Press CTRL+A to select all the objects on the slide. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle.Press and hold SHIFT, and then select all three text boxes. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Distribute Horizontally.

To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following:On the Animations tab, in the Transition to This Slide group, click More, and then under Push and Cover click Push Left.On the Animations tab, in the Transitions to This Slide group, in the Transition Speed list, select Slow.

199020001980Motorola Introduces Six SigmaSix SigmaLEANJust inTimeSPC

Lean Mfg.TQMAlliedSIgnalGE Adapt LSS to Business ProcessesLean Six SigmaLean Six Sigma Timeline

L6s

Transition effect for timeline, slide 3 (Basic)

Tip: This transition works well for graphics that horizontally span more than one slide.

To reproduce the shape effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Block Arrows, click Chevron (second row, eighth option from the left). On the slide, drag to draw a long, horizontal chevron shape.Select the chevron. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, do the following:In the Shape Height box, enter 0.7. In the Shape Width box, enter 9.48.Drag the chevron so that the left end is beyond the left edge of the slide, and the right end is approximately one inch left of the right edge of the slide. Select the chevron. Under Drawing Tools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, click the arrow next to Shape Fill, click Gradient, and then click More Gradients. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear. Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Up (second row, second option from the left).Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until a total of four gradient stops appear in the drop-down list. Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 36%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 213, Green: 219, Blue: 221. Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 73%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 178, Green: 190, Blue: 194. Select Stop 4 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, click More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box, on the Custom tab, enter values for Red: 213, Green: 219, Blue: 221. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Line Color in the left pane, and then select No line in the Line Color pane.Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane. In the Shadow pane, click the button next to Presets, under Outer click Offset Bottom (first row, second option from the left), and then do the following: In the Transparency box, enter 60%.In the Size box, enter 100%.In the Blur box, enter 4 pt.In the Angle box, enter 90.In the Distance box, enter 3 pt. Also in the Format Shape dialog box, click 3-D Format in the left pane. In the 3-D Format pane, under Bevel, click the button next to Top, and then under Bevel click Circle (first row, first option from the left). Next to Top, in the Width box, enter 4 pt, and in the Height box, enter 4 pt.On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box, and then on the slide, drag to draw the text box.Enter text in the text box, select the text, and then on the Home tab, in the Font group, select Gill Sans MT Cond from the Font list, enter 26 in the Font Size box, click Bold, click the arrow next to Font Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1, Darker 50% (sixth row, first option from the left).On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click Center to center the text in the text box.Select the text box. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, and then click Duplicate. Repeat this process to create a total of three text boxes.Click in each of the two duplicate text boxes, and then edit the text.Drag the text boxes onto the chevron shape to form a row. Press CTRL+A to select all the objects on the slide. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Middle.Press and hold SHIFT, and then select all three text boxes. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Distribute Horizontally.

To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following:On the Animations tab, in the Transition to This Slide group, click More, and then under Push and Cover click Push Left.On the Animations tab, in the Transitions to This Slide group, in the Transition Speed list, select Slow.

Background on LeanLean comes out of the industrial engineering worldTaiichi Ohno Toyota Production System.1940s-1950s company was on verge of bankruptcyDynamics of industry were changing moving from mass production to more flexible, shorter, varied batch runs (people wanted more colors, different features, more models, etc).Ohno was inspired by 3 observations on a trip to AmericaHenry Fords assembly line inspired the principle of flow (keep products moving because no value is added while it is sitting still)The Indy 500 Rapid ChangeoverThe American Grocery Store led to the Pull system material use signals when and how stock needs to be replenished

Path To LeanTheoryWaste is DeadlyApplicationDefine Value act on what is important to the customerIdentify Value Stream understand what steps in the process add value and which dontMake it flow keep the work moving at all times and eliminate waste that creates delayLet customer pull -- Avoid making more or ordering more inputs for customer demand you dont havePursue perfection -- there is no optimum level of performanceFocusFlow FocusedAssumptionsNon-Value added steps exitResultsReduced cycle time

Waste DefinedWastesHealthcare ExamplesTransportMoving patients from room to roomPoor workplace layouts, for patient servicesMoving equipment in and out of procedure room or operating roomInventoryOverstocked medications on units/floors or in pharmacyPhysician orders building up to be entered Unnecessary instruments contained in operating kitsMotionLeaving patient rooms to:Get supplies or recordDocuments care providedLarge reach/walk distance to complete a process stepWaitingIdle equipment/peopleEarly admissions for procedures later in the dayWaiting for internal transport between departments Over-ProductionMultiple signature requirementsExtra copies of formsMultiple information systems entriesPrinting hard copy of report when digital is sufficientOver-ProcessingAsking the patient the same questions multiple timesUnnecessary carbon copyingBatch printing patient labelsDefectsHospital-acquired illnessWrong-site surgeriesMedication errorsDealing with service complaintsIllegible, handwritten informationCollection of incorrect patient informationSkillsNot using peoples mental, creative, and physical abilitiesStaff not involved in redesigning processes in their workplaceNurses and Doctors spending time locating equipment and suppliesStaff rework due to system failures

Lean FoundationsStandardized Work people should analyze their work and define the way that best meets the needs of all stakeholders. The current one best way to safely complete an activity with the proper outcome and the highest quality, using the fewest possible resourcesStandardized not Identical mindless conformity and the thoughtful setting of standards should not be confusedWritten by those who do the work.Level loading smoothing the workflow and patient flow throughout the hospital.Kaizen continuous improvement

Lean MethodsKaizen Events (or SCORE events)Planned and structured process that enables a small group of people to improve some aspect of their business in a quick, focused manner.SelectClarifyOrganizeRunEvaluate5S this methodology reduces waste through improved workplace organization and visual managementSort, Store, Shine, Standardize and SustainKanban a Japanese term that can be translated as signal, card, or sign.Most often a physical signal (paper card of plastic bin), that indicates when it is time to order more, from whom, and in what quantity.

Lean vs. Six SigmaLean tends to be used for shorter, less complex problems. Often time driven. Focus is on eliminating wasteful steps and practices.Six Sigma is a bigger more analytical approach often quality driven it tends to have a statistical approach. Focus on optimizing the important steps reducing defects.Some argue Lean moves the mean, SixSigma moves the variance. But they are often used together and should not be viewed as having different objectives.Waste elimination eliminates an opportunity to make a defectLess rework means faster cycle timesSix Sigma training might be specialized to the quality department, but everyone in the organization should be trained in Lean

VOC vs. VOP

Voice of CustomerVoice of ProcessThe Voice of the Process is independent of the Voice of the Customer SigmaCapabilityDefects per Million Opportunities% Yield2308,53769.15%366,80793.32%46,21099.38%523399.98%63.499.99966%

L6s

Whats good enough?99% Good (3.8 Sigma)99.99966% Good (6 Sigma)20,000 lost articles of mail per hour (based on 2,000,000/hr)7 articles lost per hour

Unsafe drinking water for almost 15 minutes each day1 unsafe minute every 7 months5,000 incorrect surgical operations per week1.7 incorrect operations per week2 short or long landings daily at an airport with 200 flights/day1 short or long landing every 5 years2,000,000 wrong drug prescriptions each year680 wrong prescriptions per yearNo electricity for almost 7 hours each month1 hour without electricity every 34 years

L6s

Goals of Lean Six Sigma

LSLUSLCustomer TargetDefectsDefectsPrevent Defects byReducing Variation

LSLUSLCustomer TargetDefectsPrevent Defects byCentering Process

LSLUSLCustomer TargetMeet Customer Requirements

L6s

What Makes a Good Lean Six Sigma Project?There is no known solutionThe root cause is not knownThe problem is complex and needs statistical analysisThe problem is part of a processThe process is repeatableA defect can be defined Project will take 3-6 monthsThere are data available

The DMAIC MethodologyDefine describe the problem quantifiably and the underlying process to determine how performance will be measured.Measure use measures or metrics to understand performance and the improvement opportunity.Analyze identify the true root cause(s) of the underlying problem.Improve identify and test the best improvements that address the root causes.Control identify sustainment strategies that ensure process performance maintains the improved state.

DefineDefine Scope of the ProblemDocument the ProcessCollect and Translate the Voice of the CustomerDetermine Project Objective and BenefitsDefine Metrics and DefectsEstablish Preliminary BaselineDevelop Problem & Objective StatementsEstimate Financial Benefit

Define (continued)Create Project CharterConfirm Improvement MethodologyDefine Project Roles and ResponsibilitiesIdentify RisksEstablish TimelineManagerial Buy-inFocus here is on the problem

Measure Measure what is measurable, and make measurable what is not so GalileoDefine As Is processValue stream map/process flow diagramValidate Measurement System for OutputsDont assume your measurements are accurate measuring system must accurately tell what is happeningQuantify Process PerformanceCollect data (Ys)Examine process stability/capability analysis

AnalyzeIdentify Potential Causes (Xs)Investigate Significance of XsCollect data on xsGraphical/Quantitative analysisPareto ChartFishbone Diagram (cause and effect)Chi Square TestRegression AnalysisFailure Mode Effects AnalysisIdentify Significant Causes to focus on (y=f(X))Evaluate the impact of xs on yHere you identify the critical factors of a good output and the root causes of defects or bad output.

ImproveGenerate Potential SolutionsSelect & Test SolutionDevelop Implementation Plan

ControlCreate Control & Monitoring PlanMistake proof the processDetermine the xs to control and methodsDetermine Ys to monitorImplement Full Scale SolutionRevise/develop processImplement and evaluate solutionFinalize TransitionDevelop transition planHandoff process to owner

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