An Agile Practice Framework for Scaling Agile Adoption in an Enterprise

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An Agile Practice Framework for Scaling Agile Adoption in an Enterpriseby Brad Appleton

April 23, 2013

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

BackgroundA FrameworkMindset & ValuesPrinciplesPractices & Practice-AreasAdoptionScaling Agenda2

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

BackgroundA quick overview

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

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OverviewHave an existing community-of-practice of agile coaches, developersA few have have been part of agile efforts that started between 1999-2003More have been part of efforts since >=2007The third wave started around 2008-2010Had strong sr. mgmt sponsorship in late 2000sStill have sr. mgmt support for Agile & Lean(but visibility & momentum has waned)4

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Waves of Adoption & SupportFirst wave of agile adoption efforts (1999-2003) were grass-roots practitioner-driven efforts that started bottom-up at the individual & team-level.

As the number of teams and interest grew, this gave rise to a second-wave (2003-2007) at the organization-level with top-down sponsorship/acceptance.5

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Waves of Adoption & Support [cont.]The Third-wave (2008-2012) took an outside-in approach, using a middle-management sandwich to help grow more agile coaches and teams, but experienced some new challenges Many teams & practitioners were new to agile Less pre-existing expertise in agile principles & practicesTailoring communication messages & meanings for multiple audiencesNew practitioners, middle-management, and senior managementEach needs different emphasis on different sets of things at different levels of detail6

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

How are adoption efforts going?Some teams are further along in their progress than othersSome are doing agile or even being agileMany others are still struggling to get more than just minor improvementStill more have stalled due to loss of momentum or critical-mass (some have even regressed backward)What can be done to get back on track?!7

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

What is the barrier/plateau?Progress (and motivation) has been slowingTo make important cultural and mind-set changesTo fully realize the significance of key principles, technical practices and technical debtTo escalate & overcome external impedimentsTo adequately grow automation capability + test-coverage. No clear milestones other than initial state and desired state the gap is too intimidating!8

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

An Agile Framework?Challenges, Goals & Objectives

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

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Evolution -vs- RevolutionAgile Transformation: RevolutionaryGetting an entire organization to change its culture and practices, together. (Very often top-down!)Learn The whole enchilada and begin training and adoption of (most) all the practices at once.Incremental Transition: EvolutionaryGetting a few key people & teams at a time to learn and adopt a practice or two at a time. (Very often bottom-up!)Gradually building competence with a handful of practices and teams before trying a new one.Existing organizational-culture and business-context determines which approach is acceptable! 10

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Being Agile: Internalizing the mindset, values, and principles then applying the right practices and tailoring them to different situations as they arise.Doing Agile: Executing the practices as closely as possible to as prescribed description, and trying to inspect and adapt to remove impediments to achieving the as prescribed execution.Dont Do Agile. Be Agile! Alan KellyStop Doing Agile Start Being Agile! Jim HighsmithDoing Agile versus Being Agile11

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

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http://www.halfarsedagilemanifesto.org/

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

WANTED: more adoption guidance and progress milestones (and scaling)13

http://leadinganswers.typepad.com/leading_answers/2011/04/periodic-table-of-agile-adoption-.html

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Looking for a Framework That synthesizes existing/proven frameworksPractices from the full range of methods:XP, Scrum, Lean, FDD, AUPTeam-Level Agility:Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) Ambler & Lines Distributed ScrumScaling:Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) Leffingwell, et.al. Enterprise Agile Delivery Alan Brown, et.al. Learning and Mastery:Dreyfus model, other models,

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April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

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April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Other important requirementsNot looking to do top-down transformation of a whole program or organizationStart small (individual teams) and help them incrementally grow their agility up and outStriving for high-cohesion within teams and loose-coupling between teamsExisting frameworks (e.g., DAD, SAFe) are good as long as proceed in an evolutionary fashion16

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Agile ScalingAgile AdoptionAgile ResultsAgile PracticesAgile PrinciplesAgile ValuesAn Agile Practice Framework

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

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6 Faces of the Cube18

MindsetPrinciplesValuesAdoptionPracticesScaling

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

The Agile Mindset4 Agile Values6x2 Agile Principles6 Agile Practice Areas6 Stages of Agile Adoption/Evolution6 Levels of Agile ScalingThe Agile Practice Framework19

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Agile is a mindsetDefined by valuesGuided by principlesManifested through many different practicesAhmed Sidky The Agile mindset20

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Values, Principles & Practices21

ValuesPracticesPrinciplesValues bring purpose to practices.Practices bring accountability to values.Principles bridge values and practices by guiding behavior.Kent Beck, Extreme Programming Explained (2nd edition)

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Practices by themselves are barren. Unless given purpose by values, they become rote. Kent Beck, Extreme Programming Explained (2nd edition)Is it better to spend your time understanding principles or studying practices? We observe that the best results come from combining the two approaches. Copying practices without understanding the underlying principles has a long history of mediocre results. Mary & Tom Poppendieck, Implementing Lean Software Development, Chapter 2 Principles

Which comes first?22

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

The Agile Manifesto establishes a set of four values that are people-centric and results-driven:

while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. The Manifesto for Agile Software Development,The Agile Alliance, February 2001, www.agilemanifesto.org Agile Values (from the Agile Manifesto)Individuals & InteractionsProcesses & ToolsWorking SoftwareComprehensive DocumentationResponding to changeFollowing a planCustomer CollaborationContract Negotiationover

over

over

over

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April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Agile Principles are Guiding ThemesContinuous Technical Excellenceand Simplicity is EssentialAlign, Support & Trust Self-Organizing TeamsCollaborate Daily Across Functions and Convey Information via ConversationDeliver Working Software Frequentlyat a Sustainable PaceWelcome Change Reflect and AdaptContinuous Delivery of Customer-Valueand Working Software Defines Progress24

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Values and PrinciplesAlign, Support & Trust Self-Organizing TeamsContinuous Value thru Working SoftwareWelcome Change -- Reflect and AdaptDeliver Frequently at a Sustainable PaceContinuous Simplicity & Technical ExcellenceCollaborate Daily via ConversationResponding to changeIndividuals & InteractionsWorking SoftwareCustomer Collaboration25

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Grouping Practices into Practice-AreasEach of the 10-12 initial agile practices are really several smaller practices put togetherEach one of the smaller (canonical) practices is often easier to learn and assimilateBut the full-list of all the canonical practices can be very intimidating!Grouping them into practice-areas makes them easier to present, explain, learn and digestUse the values and principles as a guide for how to divide into practice-areas26

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Grouping Values & Principles into Individuals & InteractionsWorking SoftwareResponding to changeCustomer CollaborationContinuous Customer-ValueAlign, Support & TrustSelf-Organizing Teams Continuous Technical ExcellenceWelcome ChangeWorking Software Defines ProgressSimplicity is EssentialDeliver FrequentlyReflect and AdaptCollaborate Daily Across FunctionsConvey Information via ConversationSustainable Pace27

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Agile Practice-AreasBusiness Analysis & Value Management28

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Viewing Practices by Practice-AreaEven for a given practice-area, the full list of practices can still be very daunting.Plus some stepping stone practices are often necessary to transition to a specific practice.E.g., being able to build daily (or even weekly) prior to integrating continuously29

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Practice AreaPracticesProject & Program ManagementRelease Plan, Iteration Plan, Velocity Tracking, Buffer Management, Sprint Goals & PSIs, Iteration Review, Task/Kanban Board, Release Train (ART), etc.Programming, Design & ArchitectureClean Coding, TDD/BDD, Refactoring, Incremental Design, DDD, Technical Debt Mgmt, Evolutionary Architecture, Architectural Runway, etc.Collaboration & LeadershipTeam Coaching/Facilitation, Pairing, Standups, Retrospectives, Collective Ownership, Customer Proxy, Definition of DONE, Cross-Functional Teams, etc.Integration, Build & ReleaseContinuous Integration, Daily (Staged CI) Build, Continuous Inspection, Deployment Pipeline, Continuous Delivery, etc.Testing & SpecificationAutomated Testing, Concurrent Testing, Acceptance Criteria, ATDD, Specification by Example, Test-Driven Requirements, etc. Business Analysis & Value MgmtAgile Product Mgmt, Backlog Mgmt, MVP/MMF, Stories & Spikes, Epics & Themes, Value Streams, WSJF Prioritization, Impact Mapping, Agile UX Design, etc.

Viewing Practices by Practice-Area30

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

Adoption Stages/MilestonesStill need to breakdown adoption efforts into many smaller milestonesThis breaks-up the long journey of agile adoption and continuous improvement into baby stepsNeeded for overall adoption and by practice-area!Each step/stage represents an important transition to a higher-level of skill mastery, and understandingIdentifies the important stages where teams often get stuck and dont progress further (or regress)Teams can strive for the next attainable near-term milestone without losing sight of desired destination31

April 23, 2013An Agile Practice Framework forScaling Agile Adoption in an EnterpriseBrad Appletonblog.bradapp.netAPLN Chicago

#Stage NameSkill LevelExpected Results / Improvement0.Regressive Legacy

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