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Metallurgy of Steel


  • Principles and Applications

    Ahindra Ghosh, Sc.D.AICTE Emeritus FellowProfessor (Retired)Indian Institute of Technology, KanpurDepartment of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering


    Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.CRC Press

    2001 CRC Press LLC

  • This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted withpermission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publishreliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materialsor for the consequences of their use.

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    Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only foridentification and explanation, without intent to infringe.

    2001 by CRC Press LLCNo claim to original U.S. Government works

    International Standard Book Number 0-8493-0264-1Library of Congress Card Number 00-060865

    Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0Printed on acid-free paper

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Ghosh, AhindraSecondary Steelmaking : Principles and Applications

    p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-8493-0264-1 1. Steel. I. Title.

    TN730 .G48 2000 672dc21 00-060865

    0264 Disclaimer Page 1 Thursday, November 2, 2000 11:07 AM

    2001 CRC Press LLC

  • 2001 CRC Press LLC


    toDr. G. P. Ghosh

    (Late) Prof. T. B. King(Late) Prof. A. K. Seal

  • 2001 CRC Press LLC


    With the passage of time, customIn view of this, steelmakers areproduct of steelmaking is liquidLiquid steel of superior qualityinclusions, the desired alloying

    The primary steelmaking fu

    are not capable of meeting qu

    secondary steelmaking,

    which isit is tapped into the ladle from tthrust area in modern steelmak30 years. Its scope is wide and temperature control, removal, a

    This text consists of 11 chsteelmaking. Chapters 2 througnamics, fluid flow, mixing, mass5 through 10 deal with reactiosteelmaking.

    Since some topics do not (Chapter 8) provides coverage

    clean steel

    calls for a variety of to present an integrated picture

    Mathematical modeling is aas relevant to secondary steelma

    Although the present text dsteelmaking processes, it contaadvances as well. Synthesis of sof writing has been adopted. Somhave been included at the end ouseful not only by students andengineers interested in the field

    ers who buy steel are becoming more and more quality conscious. attempting to improve steel quality as a continuing endeavor. The steel, which is then cast primarily via the continuous casting route. should have a minimum of harmful impurities and nonmetallicelement content and casting temperature, and good homogeneity.rnaces, such as the basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace,ality demands. This has led to the growth of what is known as concerned with further refining and processing of liquid steel afterhe primary steelmaking furnace. Secondary steelmaking is a majoring technology and has witnessed significant advances in the lastincludes deoxidation, degassing, desulfurization, homogenization,nd modifications of inclusions, etc.apters. The first chapter provides a brief overview of secondaryh 4 briefly review relevant scientific fundamentals, viz., thermody- transfer, and kinetics relevant to secondary steelmaking. Chaptersns, phenomena, and processes that are of concern in secondary

    justify a full chapter for each, a chapter on miscellaneous topicsof these issues. The technology to manufacture what is known asmeasures at different processing stages. An attempt has been madeof this in Chapter 10. n important component of process research nowadays. The basicsking, along with application examples, are presented in Chapter 11.eals primarily with principles and applications for the secondaryins brief information on the processes and modern technologicalcience with technology is one of the objectives. The textbook stylee examples and their solutions also have been included. References

    f each chapter. Hence, the author hopes that this text will be found teachers, but also by steelmakers and research and development.

    Ahindra Ghosh

  • 2001 CRC Press LLC


    The author gratefully acknowledges the contribution of his colleague Dr. D. Mazumdar, who wroteChapter 11 and provided help in other aspects, and assistance provided by Dr. S. K. Choudhary,Dr. T. K. Roy, Mr. K. Deo, Mr. A. Sharma, and Ms. S. Ghosh at certain stages of preparation ofthe manuscript. Thanks are due to Mr. B. D. Biswas and Mr. J. L. Kuril for careful typing of themanuscript, Mr. A. K. Ganguly for tracing figures, and Dr. M.N. Mungole for helping withphotographs. Financial assistance from the Centre for Development of Technical Education, IndianInstitute of Technology, Kanpur, is gratefully acknowledged. Lastly, the work would not have beenpossible without the patience and cooperation of authors wife Radha and other members of hisfamily.

  • 2001 CRC Press LLC

    About the A

    Pro193BenUnithe extrUniDeptute200Tecat t

    of Technology as a visiting sciand Tata Research Developmen

    Professor Ghosh has guidedand about 75 original researchlectures at many conferences anetc. For the last three decades, hiin ironmaking and steelmakingmaking, ingot casting, and cosignificant interaction with induis also involved in basic research

    Professor Ghosh has served

    and as a member or advisor forFellow of the Indian Nationalengineering.uthor

    fessor Ahindra Ghosh was born at Howrah, West Bengal, India, in7. He studied for his B.E. degree in Metallurgical Engineering atgal Engineering College and received the degree from Calcuttaversity in 1958. Subsequently, he received his Sc.D. degree fromMassachusetts Institute of Technology in 1963, specializing inactive metallurgy. He served as Research Associate at Ohio Stateversity, U.S.A., from 196364. Since 1964, he has been with theartment of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Insti- of Technology, Kanpur, where he retired as Professor in June,0, and is currently an Emeritus Fellow of All India Council ofhnical Education. During this period, he also has spent short periodshe Imperial College, London, as well as the Massachusetts Instituteentist; and at Metallurgical and Engineering Consultants, Ranchi,t and Design Centre, Pune, as an advisor. many research students and scholars. He has to his credit 2 books publications in reviewed journals. He also has delivered invitedd has published several review papers in conference proceedings,s principal interest has been in the theory of metallurgical processes, with specific emphasis on sponge ironmaking, secondary steel-ntinuous casting. In these endeavors, Professor Ghosh also hadstry in addition to his work with metallurgical fundamentals. He in solidification of metals and high-temperature oxidation of alloys. as an editor of the Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals many professional activities. In recognition, he has been elected a Academy of Engineering for his distinguished contribution to

  • 2001 CRC Press LLC



    About the Author

    List of Symbols with Units

    Chapter 1 Introduction

    1.1 History of Secondary Ste1.2 Trends in Steel Quality D1.3 Scientific Fundamentals1.4 Process ControlReferences

    Chapter 2 Thermodynam

    2.1 Introduction2.2 First and Second Laws of2.3 Chemical Equilibrium2.4



    for Oxide Systems2.5 ActivityComposition Re2.6 ActivityComposition Re2.7 Chemical Potential and E2.8 Slag Basicity and CapacitReferences

    Appendix 2.1Appendix 2.2Appendix 2.3Appendix 2.4

    Chapter 3 Flow Fundame

    3.1 Basics of Fluid Flow3.2 Fluid Flow in Steel MeltsReferences

    Appendix 3.1

    Chapter 4 Mixing, Mass

    4.1 Introduction4.2 Mixing in Steel Melts in4.3 Kinetics of Reactions amelmakingemands

    ic Fundamentals


    lationships: Concentrated Solutionslationships: Dilute Solutionsquilibriumies


    in Gas-Stirred Ladles

    Transfer, and Kinetics

    Gas-Stirred Ladlesong Phases

  • 2001 CRC Press LLC

    4.4 Mass Transfer in a Gas-S4.5 Mixing vs. Mass TransferReferences

    Appendix 4.1

    Chapter 5 Deoxidation of

    5.1 Thermodynamics of Deox5.2 Kinetics of the Deoxidati5.3 Deoxidation in IndustryReferences

    Appendix 5.1

    Chapter 6 Degassing and

    6.1 Introduction6.2 Thermodynamics of Reac6.3 Fluid Flow and Mixing in6.4 Rates of Vacuum Degassi6.5 Decarburization for UltraReferences

    Chapter 7 Desulfurizatio

    7.1 Introduction7.2 Thermodynamic Aspects7.3 Desulfurization with Only7.4 Injection Metallurgy for DReferences

    Chapter 8 Miscellaneous

    8.1 Introduction8.2 Gas Absorption during Ta8.3 Temperature Changes of 8.4 Phosphorus Control in Se8.5 Nitrogen Control in Steel8.6 Application of MagnetohyReferences

    Chapter 9 Inclusions and

    9.1 Introduction9.2 Influence of In