agreement on trade in goods between the republic of agreement on trade in goods between the republic
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AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN GOODS
THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA
THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY
The Republic of Korea and the Republic of Turkey (hereinafter referred to as “the Parties” or “Korea” or “Turkey,” where appropriate); RECALLING the Framework Agreement signed in xx, xx on the xx day of xx xxxx; REAFFIRMING their commitment to gradually liberalise substantially all the trade in goods between the Parties; and RESOLVED to contribute to the strengthening and reinforcement of the multilateral trading system as established through the World Trade Organization; HAVE AGREED as follows:
CHAPTER 1 GENERAL DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Agreement, unless otherwise specified: Agreement on Agriculture means the Agreement on Agriculture, in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement; Anti-Dumping Agreement means the Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement; Customs Valuation Agreement means the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement; days means calendar days; existing means in effect on the date of entry into force of this Agreement; Framework Agreement means the Framework Agreement Establishing a Free Trade Area between the Republic of Korea and the Republic of Turkey, which forms part of legal instruments establishing the Korea-Turkey FTA; GATT 1994 means the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement; goods means products as understood in GATT 1994; Harmonized System (HS) means the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, including its General Rules of Interpretation, Section Notes, and Chapter Notes, as adopted and implemented by the Parties in their respective tariff laws; Joint Committee means the Joint Committee established under Article 7.1 (the Joint Committee) of the Framework Agreement; measure means any measure by a Party, whether in the form of a law, regulation, rule, procedure, decision, administrative action or any other form; national means:
(a) for Korea, a Korean national within the meaning of the Nationality Act;
and (b) for Turkey, a Turkish citizen within the meaning of the Turkish
originating means qualifying under the rules of origin set out in the Protocol on Rules of Origin and Origin Procedures; person means a natural person or a juridical person;
preferential tariff treatment means the customs duty rate applicable under this Agreement to an originating good; Safeguards Agreement means the Agreement on Safeguards, in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement; sanitary or phytosanitary measure means any measure referred to in paragraph 1 of Annex A of the SPS Agreement; SCM Agreement means the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement; SPS Agreement means the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement; TBT Agreement means the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, in Annex 1A to the WTO Agreement; territory means:
(a) for Korea, the land, maritime, and airspace under its sovereignty, and
those maritime areas, including the seabed and subsoil adjacent to and beyond the outer limit of the territorial seas over which it may exercise sovereign rights or jurisdiction in accordance with international law and its law; and
(b) for Turkey, the land territory, internal waters, the territorial sea and the
airspace above them, as well as the maritime areas over which Turkey has sovereign rights or jurisdiction for the purpose of exploration, exploitation and preservation of natural resources whether living or non- living pursuant to international law;
WCO means the World Customs Organization; WTO means the World Trade Organization; and WTO Agreement means the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, done on April 15, 1994.
CHAPTER 2 NATIONAL TREATMENT AND MARKET ACCESS FOR GOODS
Section A: Common Provisions
ARTICLE 2.1: OBJECTIVE The Parties shall gradually liberalise substantially all the trade in goods between them over a transitional period starting from the date of entry into force of this Agreement, in accordance with this Agreement and in conformity with Article XXIV of GATT 1994. ARTICLE 2.2: CUSTOMS DUTY For the purposes of this Chapter, a customs duty includes any duty or charge of any kind imposed on, or in connection with, the importation of a good, including any form of surtax or surcharge imposed on, or in connection with, such importation. A customs duty does not include any:
(a) charge equivalent to an internal tax imposed consistently with Article 2.6 in respect of the like domestic good or in respect of an article from which the imported good has been manufactured or produced in whole or in part;
(b) duty imposed pursuant to the laws of a Party consistently with Chapter 4
(Trade Remedies); (c) fee or other charge imposed pursuant to the laws of a Party consistently
with Article 2.8; (d) premium offered or collected on an imported good arising out of any
tendering system in respect of the administration of quantitative import restrictions or tariff rate quotas; and
(e) duty imposed pursuant to the laws of a Party consistently with Article 5
of the Agreement on Agriculture.
ARTICLE 2.3: CLASSIFICATION OF GOODS The classification of goods in trade between the Parties shall be that set out in each Party’s respective tariff nomenclature interpreted in conformity with the Harmonized System.
Section B: Reduction or Elimination of Customs Duties ARTICLE 2.4: REDUCTION OR ELIMINATION OF CUSTOMS DUTIES 1. Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, each Party shall reduce or eliminate its customs duties on originating goods of the other Party in accordance with its Schedule included in Annex 2. 2. If at any moment a Party reduces its applied most favoured nation (hereinafter referred to as “MFN”) customs duty rate after the entry into force of this Agreement, that duty rate shall apply as regards trade covered by this Agreement if and for as long as it is lower than the customs duty rate calculated in accordance with its Schedule included in Annex 2. 3. On request of either Party, the Parties shall consult each other to consider the possibility of accelerating and broadening the scope of the reduction or elimination of customs duties on imports between them. Following such consultations, a decision by the Joint Committee on the acceleration or broadening of the scope of the reduction or elimination of a customs duty on a good shall supersede any duty rate or staging category determined pursuant to the respective Party’s Schedule included in Annex 2 for that good, subject to the Parties’ respective applicable legal requirements and procedures.
ARTICLE 2.5 STANDSTILL Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, including as explicitly set out in each Party’s Schedule included in Annex 2, neither Party shall increase any existing customs duty, or adopt any new customs duty, on an originating good of the other Party. This shall not preclude either Party from raising a customs duty to the level established in its Schedule included in Annex 2 following a unilateral reduction on an MFN basis.
Section C: Non-Tariff Measures ARTICLE 2.6: NATIONAL TREATMENT Each Party shall accord national treatment to goods of the other Party in accordance with Article III of GATT 1994, including its interpretative notes; and to this end, Article III of GATT 1994, including its interpretative notes, is incorporated into and made part of this Agreement, mutatis mutandis. ARTICLE 2.7: IMPORT AND EXPORT RESTRICTIONS Neither Party shall adopt or maintain any prohibition or restriction other than duties, taxes or other charges on the importation of any good of the other Party or on the exportation or sale for export of any good destined for the territory of the other Party, except in accordance with Article XI of GATT 1994, including its interpretative notes; and to this end, Article XI of GATT 1994, including its interpretative notes, is incorporated into and made part of this Agreement, mutatis mutandis. ARTICLE 2.8: FEES AND OTHER CHARGES ON IMPORTS Each Party shall ensure that all fees and charges of whatever character (other than customs duties and the items that are excluded from the definition of a customs duty under Article 2.2(a), (b), (d) and (e)) imposed on, or in connection with, importation are limited in amount to the approximate cost of services rendered, are not calculated on an ad valorem basis, and do not represent an indirect protection to domestic goods or taxation of imports for fiscal purposes. ARTICLE 2.9: DUTIES, TAXES OR OTHER FEES AND CHARGES ON EXPORTS Neither Party shall maintain or institute any duties, taxes or other fees and charges imposed on, or in connection with, the exportation of goods to the territory of the other Party, or any internal taxes, fees and charges on goods exported to the territory of the other Party that are in excess of those imposed on like goods destined for internal sale. ARTICLE 2.10: SANITARY AND PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES 1. The Parties affirm their existing rights and obligations with respect to each