African Exploration. The Age of European Exploration & Colonization Western European countries expand during 15th century –Explore, conquer, and colonize
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The Age of EuropeanExploration & ColonizationWestern European countries expand during 15th centuryExplore, conquer, and colonize
ExplorePortugal explores traveled all around the coastline on Africa.Albuquerque makes Indian Ocean Lake PortugueseSmall forts set up on coast to repair ships, collect supplies, trade for gold.
ConquerAt first tough for Europeans to invade inland Africa. However, once they did they began taking and trading for everything. Convinced warrior native tribes to be their allies and through force made them hand over resources for trade.
ConquerHowever, Africans were strong and resisted. So Europeans stopped and finally just made trade relationships. What did they trade for:- Gold- Cocoa - Peanuts- Diamonds- Coffee- SLAVES
Colonize Europeans left most of North and West Africa for the natives. Kingdoms were established like the Asante, Usman, and Fulani. Europeans colonized and settled in what is known as today South Africa. In South Africa there is a strong European, French feel.
Early African SlavesEuropeans would trade goods but also white slaves to Africa for their rich resources. The earliest slaves out of Africa to European nations were mainly women and children who would serve as concubines and servants.
African Slave Trade Demand for agricultural labor in 16th century changed slave trade. Spanish gold and silver minesPortuguese sugar plantationsExportation of tobacco, rice and indigo from the Americas
TRIANGLE TRADEMolassesAfricaNorth AmericaRum, and Weapons The CaribbeanSlaves
Becoming a SlaveCapture PhaseTransportation Phase - Middle PassageSeasoning PhaseSlavery Phase
Capture African Tribes would invade other tribes and capture slaves. High mortalityExhaustion, suicide, murderLong forced marches from interior - coast Factories served as Headquarters for tradersWarehouses for trade goodsPens or dungeons for captives
Late-Eighteenth-Century DrawingIn this late-eighteenth-century drawing, African slave traders conduct a group of bound captives from the interior of Africa toward European trading posts. SOURCE: Culver Pictures, Inc.
TransportationJourney referred to as Middle Passage40 to 180 days to reach the CaribbeanPirates attacked Spanish shipsFrightening experience
Middle PassageSmall and narrow ships(TIGHT vs. LOOSE) Most captains were tight packers Ignored formula in the name of profits
Middle PassageCrowded, unsanitary conditions Slaves rode on planks 66 x 15 only 20 25 of headroomMales chained together in pairs Kept apart from women and children
British Slave ShipPlan of the British Slave Ship Brookes, 1788. This plan, which may undercount the human cargo the Brookes carried, shows how tightly Africans were packed aboard slave ships.
Middle PassageSlaves fed twice per dayPoor and insufficient dietVegetable pulps, stews, and fruits Denied meat or fishTen people eating in one bucketUnwashed hands spread diseaseMalnutrition, weakness, depression, death
African women worth half the price of African men in the Caribbean marketsSeparation from male slaves made them easier targetsLess protection against unwanted sexual attention from European men
SeasoningSlaves seasoned in Barbados Worked out to see if they could handle the new climate, and environment Work day and Night in slave camps Than were sold and shipped to parts of the Caribbean and the Americas
Pre-saleBathed and exercisedOiled bodies to conceal blemishes and bruises
Slavery11 Million Slaves were purchased in the New World from 1500 to 1850Purchased slaves offspring became slaves in the Americas.Invention of Cotton Gin caused need for more and more slaves.Slaves lived very harsh lives. However, cultural has for ever been changed.
SlaveryAdapted to new foodsLearned a new languageAfricans retained culture despite the hardships and cruel treatmentCreated bonds with shipmates that replaced blood kinshipAfrican American Cultural established and continues today
11 Million But so Many More 1/3 of slaves are killed at early Phases of Slavery.
So if 11 million become slaves 33 million were captured to start.
QUESTIONS FROM READINGWho obtains slaves for trading on the coast?From the reading what were two examples of how slaves were captured and sent into slavery?According to the doctor along with not allowing Europeans inland, why else is it hard for Europeans to capture slaves?What things do European traders look for in a slave? Why might a slave be rejected? In your opinion just reading this passage who is to blame for the slave trade?