Advances in Marine Biology, Volume 1

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  • Advances in

    MARINE BIOLOGY VOLUME 1

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  • Edited by

    F. S. RUSSELL Plymouth, England

    Advances in

    MARINE BIOLOGY

    VOLUME 1

    ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Publishers)

    London Orlando San Diego New York Toronto Montreal Sydney Tokyo

  • ACADEMIC PRESS INC. (LONDON) LTD.

    BERKELEY SQUARE HOUSE

    LONDON, W.1

    US. E d i t h , published by ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. Orlando, Florida 32887

    Copyright 0 1963 hy Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd.

    All rights reserved

    NO PART OF THIS BOOK MAY BE REPRODUCED IN ANY FORM, BY PHOTOSTAT,

    MICROFILM OR ANY OTHER MEANS, WITHOUT WRITTEN PERMISSION FROM THE

    PUBLISHER

    Library oj' Chyri?ss Cutu1o.q Cwd Nwmbw: 63-14040

    SBN: 12 026101 4

    PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    8 4 8 5 8 6 8 7 9 8 7 6 5 4

  • CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME I

    J. H . 8. BLAXTER, Marine Lizborw, Aber&een, Scotland

    ANTON F. BRTJUN, formerly of Copenhagen, Denmark

    b y C. DAVIS, U.S. Bureau of C m w c i a l Fisheries Biological Laboratmy, Iliilfot.d, Connecticut, U.S.A.

    F. G. T. HOLLIDAY, Department of Natural History, Aberdeen Univereity, 8cfAHul

    VIUTOR L. LOOSANOFF, U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fi8heries, She& $aheries Laboratmy, Tiburon, California, U.S.A.

    J. A. C . NICOL, Marine Biological A88ociation, The Laboralory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, Demn, England

    C. M. YONOE, Department of Zoology, The University, M a g o w , Scotland

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  • PREFACE

    The very great oxpansion of marine rcsearch in recont years haa resulted in a mass of published results scattered through a very wide range of periodicals. In consequence i t is becoming increasingly diffi- cult to obtain a general picture of the overall advance that is being made in our knowledge of the many aspects of life in the sea.

    It is hoped that the production of this new serial publication will help biologists to keep abreast of knowledge in the different lines of research on the biology of marine organisms. It is intended that each annual volume shall contain comprehensive review articles summarizing the general position of our knowledge in individual fields. Attention will be given to recent advances in fisheries biology, the results of research in which are often published in periodicals that may not normally be available in the librarics of univorsity biology depart- ments. These investigations are, however, of vcry goneral interest since they usually concentrate on the biology and ecology of a few individual specics in greater detail than for other marino organisms.

    When possible shorter roview articlcs may also be publishoti drawing attention to new dovelopmcnts and growing points in marino biology.

    General articlcs on the biology of marine organisms will include information on the environment only in so far as it is nccessary for an understanding of their habits. Articles will not be published which relate only to the physical and chemical conditions in tho flea in relation to water movcmcntn and doop-sea occanoqraphy.

    Any suggestions from readers on fields of resoarch that nccd reviewing and might form subject matter for future volumes will be welcomod. IMitorial corrcspondeiice should be addressed to me at Wardour, Derriford, Crownhill, Plymouth, Devon.

    April, 1963 F. S . R.

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  • CONTENTS

    CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME 1 . . .. .. .. .. PREFACE . . .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

    Rearing of Bivalve Mollusks

    A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. 1;.

    M.

    VICTOR L. LOOSANOFF AND HARRY C. DAVIS I. Introduction .. .. .. * . .. ..

    11. Equipment . . .. .. . f .. .. .. 111. Conditioning Mollusks for Out-of-Seaon Spawning . . IV. Cultivation of Eggs and Larvae of Bivalve8 . . ..

    Abnormal Eggs and Larvao . . .. . . General Description of the Development Methods of Cultivation of Eggs and Larvao

    . .

    . . Larval Period . . .. 1 . .. .. Hardiness of Eggs and Larvae . . .. .. Effects of Temperature on Eggs and Larvae . . Effects of Salinity on Eggs and Larvae.. Effects of Turbidity on Eggs and Larvae . . Effects of Foods on Growth of Larvae . . Effeects of Crowding . . .. .. ..

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    Metamorphosis . . .. .. .. .. Diseases of Larval and Juvenile Mollusks and their

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    .. Treatment . . .. .. .. ..

    Selective Breeding and Hybridization . . .. V. Rearing of Different Species . . .. .. ..

    A. Crassoetrea virginicu (Gmelin) . . .. .. C. Arm tralzgveraa Say . . .. .. . . D. Modiolzcp demis8us (Uillwyn) . . .. . . E. Mylilwedulie Linn6 . . . I .. .. F. Anomia eimplex 1YOrt)igny . . . . * . G . Pecten irrudium Larnarck . . .. . . H. O&eu vdulia Idinn/, . . .. .. .. I . Odrm lurida Carperrbr . . .. .. .. , I . f !rtr,rwdrctc vigm (Thunberg) . . .. .. K. Laevicurdium mortoni (Conrad) . . .. .. L. Mercenaria (= Venw) campechiensia (Gmelin) M. Tapm mnddecusmiu Reeve . . .. ..

    B. Mercenaria (= Venua) mermnrlrio (Linnb) . .

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    PAOL

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    vii

    2 4

    14

    26 26 -30 35 38 41 47 52 53 55 68 71

    76 80 81 82 84 HB H7 1)o ! j f i

    101 104 106 107 109 110

    m

  • X CONTENTS

    N. Pitar (= Callocardia) morrhmna Gould .. 0. Petricola pholadiformis hmarck .. .. P. Emis directus (Conrad) . . .. .. . . Q. Mactra (= Spisula) solidissima Dillwyn . . R. N y a arenaria Linn6 . . .. .. .. S . Teredo navalis Linnd . . .. .. ..

    VI. Acknowledgments .. . . .. .. .. VII. References . . . . .. . . 1 . .. ..

    The Breeding of the North Atlantic Freshwater- Eels

    The late ANTON F. BRUTJN I. Introduction . . . . . . .. .. ..

    PAGE

    .. 112

    .. 115

    .. 117

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    . . 129

    .. 130

    .. 137 11. Anguillu anguilla L.-A. rostrata Le Sueur, the Taxonomic

    Situation . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . 139 I11 The Distance to Cover during the Migration . . .. .. 141 IV. How Does A . anguilla Reach the Breeding Place? . . .. 142

    Why Have No Migrating Eels Been Caught in the Strait of Gibraltar?. . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . 145

    VI. The Return of the European Eel to the Sea . . .. . . 147 VII. Schmidts CoIlections of Anguillu Leptocephali. . . . . . 164

    Possible Temperature Effects on the Number of Vertebrae in

    V.

    VIII. Anguilla . . .. .. .. .. .. . I

    IX. Parallel Cases among North AtlaRtic Apodea . . . . X. Other Specie8 of Apodert BrwJiny in the H~ganno Heti

    XI. Reference8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . I

    Some Aspects of Photoreception and Vision in Fishes

    q J . A. (!. NICO~, . . . . . . .. . . I. Introduction . .

    11. Extra-ocular Reception . . . . . . . . . . 111. Kegalntion of Light Itenching SScnnory Surfaces ..

    .. . . A. Iineul . . .. . . ..

    C. The Tapetum Lucidum of Chondrichthyes . . ,. * . B. Pupillary Movement . . ..

    I). Retinomotor Changea in Teleosts . . . .

    .. 156

    .. 162

    . I la4 . I ICH)

    . . 171

    . . 172 I . 174 . . 174 .. 176 .. 176 .. 178

  • CONTENTS

    Refraction, Accommodation and the Receptor Layer . . Visuul Pigments and Spectral Sensitivity . . . . . . Transmiesion.of the Lens . . .. .. . . .. .. Photosensitivity and Visual Thrcxholde . . .. I . . . Thc Chorioitlnl Gland . . .. .. . . . . . . Nnologicnl cind Bchavinnral StudieH . . .. .. . . Synopsix . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .

    ..

    References . . . . .. .. .. . * .. ..

    IV. V.

    VI . VII.

    VITT. IX . X.

    XI.

    I. 11.

    111. IV. V.

    VI. VII.

    VIII. IX .

    X. X I .

    XII. XIII.

    I.

    11.

    The Biology of Coral Reefs C. M. YONGE

    Introduction .. .. .. Reviews . . .. .. .. Systematics and Distribution . . Settlement of Planulae . . .. Ecology of Atolls . . .. .. Atlantic Reefs . . .. .. Eroeion . . .. .. .. Physiology . . ,. .. .. Zooxunthellae . . .. ..

    A. Nature .. .. .. R. Significance of the hociut ion

    Growth . . I . . . . . lm(!t I d I, iKilt . . . . . . Productivity .. . . . . Itcferciiccs . . 9 . . . ..

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    . . . . . . . . * . .. . . . . . * .. ..

    The Behaviour and Physiology of Herring and Other Clupeids J. H. S. BLAXTER AND F. G . T. HOLLIDAY

    .. .. .. .. * . Introduction .. .. A. General .. .. .. .. .. .. . . B. Characteristics of Clupeids . . a . . . . .

    A. Baxic Structure and Componition . . .. 13. To1er:mcc to External Coriditioiili . .

    . . . . . . The Gametes .. .. . . ..

    xi p.im

    182

    186 101

    191 104

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    200 20 I

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    213 214 217

    219 224

    229 232 23 2 232 236 246 21H

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    262 262 264 2fM 264 2t;f;

  • xii CONTENTS

    C. Viability of the Gametes and Artificial Storage . . D. Fertilization .. E. Parthenogenesis . . .. .. ..

    111. The Developing Egg . . .. .. .. A. Embryology . . . . .. ..

    ing Egg . . . . .. . .

    .. .. .. .. * . .. .. .. .. .. ..

    P. Effect of Temperature on Rate of Development . . C. Salinity Tolerance and Osmo-regulation of the Develop

    D. Effect of Temperature, Pressure and CO, on Egg8 . . . . .. ..

    . . . . .. .. E. Egg Mortality .. . . .. .. .. . . IV. TheLarva .. .. ..

    A. Development of Organ Systems.. .. .. B. Feeding of Larvae.. .. . . . . .. C. Growth of Larvae.. .. .. . . . . D. Rearing of Larvae. . .. .. . . . . E. Farming . . .. .. F. Mortality of Larvae . . .. .. .. G. Predation on Larvae . . .. .. .. H. Salinity Tolerance and Osmo-regulation of Larvae I. Oxygen Uptake . . .. J. Dermal Receptors. . .. .. .. ..

    Limiting Factors * .

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    K. Temperature, pH, Oxygen, Pressure and Light

    L. Loeomotory Behaviour and Rheotropic Response .. .. ..

    M. Vertical Migration of Larvae . . .. .. N. Response of Larvae to Light . . * . ..

    .. . . .. .. V. Metamorphosis . . . I VI. Post-metamorphic Stages . . . . . . . . . .

    A. 13. (;. I ) . 12. It'.

    G . H. I. J. K. L. M.

    N. 0. P.

    PAQE

    267 267 268 268 268 269

    27 1 272 273

    Siilinity Tolermce and OHmcJ-regulution Temperature, Oxygen, C02 atid H,Y n~ f,imitirig IhtorH The B r h . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Olfaction . . . . . . .. .. .. .. The Labyrinth, Hearing, the Effect of Sound, and

    Sound Production . . . . .. .. .. Buoyancy and Equilibrium . . .. .. .. Swimming . . .. . . .. I . . . . . Activity . . .. .. . . . . . . ..

    . . 312 313 314 316

    316 320 322 325

    . . 274

    . . 274 ,. 276 .. 277 .. 278 . . 280 . . 280 . . 283 .. 283 .. 286 .. 287 as .. 287 . . 289 . . 289 . . 291 . . 292 . . 294

    294 . , Wfi . . 297 . . 2 w . . :so2 . . 3OG . . 307 . . 3(H)

  • CONTENTS

    .. .. .. .. Q. Shoaling .. .. .. R. Migrations .. .. S. Vertical Migration. . .. T. Effect of the Moon .. .. .. .. .. U. Attraction to Artificial Lights . . .. .. .. V. Reaction to Nets and Other Obstacles . . .. .. W. Learning .. .. .. .. .. .. .. X. Maturation of the Gonads .. .. .. .. Y. Spawning .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Z. Racial Characters, tho Genotype and tho Environment

    VII. Conclusions . . .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

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    .. .. .. .. .. VIII. References . . .. ..

    xiii

    326 332 342 347 348 361 366 366 364 367 370 372

    P A W

    AUTHORINDEX .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 396 SUBJECT INDEX . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 406

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  • REARING OF BIVALVE MOLLUSKS

    VICTOR L. LOOSANOFF* AND HARRY C. DAVIS U .S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory,

    Milford, Connecticut

    I. Introduction . . . . * . .. .. . . .. .. .. 11. Equipment .. .. .. . . .. . . .. .. ..

    1x1. Conditioning Mollusks for Out-of-Season Spawning . . .. .. .. IV. Cultivation of Eggs and Larvae of Bivalves +. A . . . I .. ..

    -4. General Description of the Development . . .. .. .. R. Abnormal Eggs and 1,arvae . . . . .. .. .. .. C. Methods of Cultivation of Eggs and Larvae . . * . . . D. 1,arval Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. E. Hardinees of Eggs and Larvae . . . . . . . . . . F. NHocts of Temperatiire on Eggs and Larvae . . . . . . G. E:ffects of Salinity 0 1 1 Eggs and Larveo . . . . . . .. H. Effects of Turbidity on Eggs and Larvae . . . . . . .. I. Effects of Foods on Growth of Larvae . . .. .. .. J. Effects of Crowding . . . . . . .. .. .. .. K. Metamorphosis .. . . . . .. . . .. . . L. Dimasos of Larval arid Juvenile Mollusks and their Treatment . . M. Sdectivo Brooding arid Hyhridizatioii . .

    V. ltmririg of J)ifferent Spociew . . .. . . . . A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. 0. P. Q. R. S.

    Gruuaoatrea virginim (Grnelin) . . . .

    Arm tmnaveraa Say . . .. .. . . ModWlu.4 demiasuo (Dillwyn) . . .. .. Mytilus edulia Linn6 . . .. . . .. A m i a mmpkx DOrbigny . . .. .. Pcctcn irradiana Lamarck . . .. . . Oatreu edulis Linn6 . . .. .. . . Oatmu lurkah Carpenter . . .. .. Cmasoatrea gigaa (Thunberg) . . . . .. Luevieardium mortoni (Conrad) *. -. . .. T a p aemideeueaata Reeve . . . . . .

    Petriwlu p h a l d i f m b Lamarck . . . Emia directw ( ( h r e c l ) . . . . Mrrclrrr ( . = Npinula) aoluhnnarn4i I)illwyrt M?/cr rcrenurirr l.irin6 . . . . . . . . lsrrtlo i u i w l i n Liiinh . .

    Merwnanb (= Venw) mcmenuriu (LinnB) . .

    Memenuria (= Venus) campechiensie (Grnelin)

    Pitar (= CaUoeardia) mmrhwnu Gould . .

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    14 26 26 30 36 38 41 47 52 53 66 68 71 76 80 81 82 84 86 87 90 96 98

    101 104 106 107 109 110 112 116 I I7 120

    127 129 130

    I . -....... I , ....... ... .*.... I.. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . 1*I

    V I. A ~ ~ l l ~ i ~ ~ ~ l i ~ i ~ ~ i i ~ ~ ~ l ~ i ~ .. .. . . . - .. .. .. .. 129 Vl1. Iiofmwircw. . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. * . .. 130

    Y.11. I 11

  • 2 VICTOR L. LOOSANOFF AND HARRY C. DAVIS

    I. INTRODUCTION Until recently rearing of larvae and juveniles of marine bivalves,

    on a basis where repeatable results could be expected, was virtually impossible because of the lack of satisfactory, reliable methods. Thus, although culturing of larvae of bivalves was first attempted in the last century, few workers succeeded in rearing them to metamorphosis and, as a rule, they were rarely grown beyond early straight-hinge stage. Even though, in the twenties, Wells (1927) was able to rear the American oyster, Cramoetrea virginica, from artificially-fertilized eggs to epat, and Prytherch (1924) raised larvae of the same species in large numbers, their results could not be consistently repeated by other investigators. The failures were usually due to poor culture methods and want of good food for the larvae, especially when they were grown in heavy concentrations. It is also possible that diseases, including those caused by fungi, were responsible for the persistent failures.

    Attempts to rear larvae of bivalves were not confined, of course, to C. vi...

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