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<ul><li><p>ADVANCESIN FOOD </p><p>MYCOLOGY</p><p>Edited by A. D. Hocking</p><p>J. I. PittR. A. Samson</p><p>andU. Thrane</p><p>Hocking</p><p>Pitt</p><p>Samson</p><p>Thrane</p><p>ADVANCES IN FOOD MYCOLOGY</p><p>AEMB571</p><p>ADVANCES INEXPERIMENTALMEDICINEAND BIOLOGY</p><p>Volume 571</p></li><li><p>Advances in Food Mycology</p></li><li><p>Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology</p><p>Editorial Board:NATHAN BACK, State University of New York at BuffaloIRUN R. COHEN, The Weizmann Institute of ScienceDAVID KRITCHEVSKY, Wistar InstituteABEL LAJTHA, N.S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric ResearchRODOLFO PAOLETTI, University of Milan</p><p>Recent Volumes in this Series</p><p>Volume 563UPDATES IN PATHOLOGY</p><p>Edited by David C. Chhieng and Gene P. Siegal</p><p>Volume 564GLYCOBIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 7TH JENNERGLYCOBIOLOGY AND MEDICINE SYMPOSIUM</p><p>Edited by John S. Axford</p><p>Volume 565SLIDING FILAMENT MECHANISM IN MUSCLE CONTRACTION:FIFTY YEARS OF RESEARCH</p><p>Edited by Haruo Sugi</p><p>Volume 566OXYGEN TRANSPORT TO ISSUE XXVI</p><p>Edited by Paul Okunieff, Jacqueline Williams, and Yuhchyau Chen</p><p>Volume 567THE GROWTH HORMONE-INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR AXIS DURINGDEVELOPMENT</p><p>Edited by Isabel Varela-Nieto and Julie A. Chowen</p><p>Volume 568HOT TOPICS IN INFECTION AND IMMUNITY IN CHILDREN II</p><p>Edited by Andrew J. Pollard and Adam Finn</p><p>Volume 569EARLY NUTRITION AND ITS LATER CONSEQUENCES: NEW OPPORTUNITIES</p><p>Edited by Berthold Koletzko, Peter Dodds, Hans Akerbloom, and Margaret Ashwell</p><p>Volume 570GENOME INSTABILITY IN CANCER DEVELOPMENT</p><p>Edited by Erich A. Nigg</p><p>Volume 571ADVANCES IN MYCOLOGY</p><p>Edited by J.I. Pitts, A.D. Hocking, and U. Thrane</p><p>A Continuation Order Plan is available for this series. A continuation order will bring delivery ofeach new volume immediately upon publication. Volumes are billed only upon actual shipment.For further information please contact the publisher.</p></li><li><p>Advances in FoodMycology</p><p>Edited by</p><p>A.D. HockingFood Science AustraliaNorth Ryde, Australia</p><p>J.I. PittFood Science AustraliaNorth Ryde, Australia</p><p>R.A. SamsonCentraalbureau voor SchimmelculturesUtrecht, Netherlands</p><p>and</p><p>U. ThraneTechnical University of DenmarkLyngby, Denmark</p></li><li><p>A.D. HockingFood Science AustraliaPO Box 52, North RydeNSW 1670AustraliaAilsa.Hocking@csiro.au</p><p>R.A. SamsonCentraalbureau voor SchimmelculturesPO Box 851673508 AD UtrechtNetherlandsSamson@cbs.knaw.nl</p><p>J.I. PittFood Science AustraliaPO Box 52, North RydeNSW 1670AustraliaJohn.Pitt@csiro.au</p><p>U. ThraneBiocentrum-DTUTechnical University of DenmarkBuilding 221DK-2800 Kgs. LyngbyDenmarkulf.thrane@biocentrum.dtu.dk</p><p>Library of Congress Control Number: 2005930810</p><p>ISBN-10: 0-387-28385-4 e-ISBN: 0-387-28391-9ISBN-13: 978-0387-28385-2</p><p>Printed on acid-free paper.</p><p> 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without thewritten permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, Inc., 233 Spring Street,New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarlyanalysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adap-tation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafterdeveloped is forbidden.The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks and similar terms, even ifthey are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether ornot they are subject to proprietary rights.</p><p>Printed in the United States of America. (SPI/EB)</p><p>9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1</p><p>springeronline.com</p></li><li><p>v</p><p>FOREWORD</p><p>This book represents the Proceedings of the Fifth InternationalWorkshop on Food Mycology, which was held on the Danish island ofSams from 15-19 October, 2003. This series of Workshops com-menced in Boston, USA, in July 1984, from which the proceedingswere published as Methods for Mycological Examination of Food(edited by A. D. King et al., published by Plenum Press, New York,1986). The second Workshop was held in Baarn, the Netherlands, inAugust 1990, and the proceedings were published as Modern Methodsin Food Mycology (edited by R. A. Samson et al., and published byElsevier, Amsterdam, 1992). The Third Workshop was held inCopenhagen, Denmark, in 1994 and the Fourth near Uppsala,Sweden, in 1998. The proceedings of those two workshops were pub-lished as scientific papers in the International Journal of FoodMicrobiology.</p><p>International Workshops on Food Mycology are held under theauspices of the International Commission on Food Mycology, aCommission under the Mycology Division of the International Unionof Microbiological Societies. Details of this Commission are given inthe final chapter of this book.</p><p>This Fifth Workshop was organised by Ulf Thrane, Jens Frisvad,Per V. Nielsen and Birgitte Andersen from the Center for MicrobialBiotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby,</p></li><li><p>Denmark. This Center, through numerous publications and bothundergraduate teaching and graduate supervision has been highlyinfluential in the world of food mycology for the past 20 years andmore. Trine Bro and Lene Nordsmark from the Center also carriedout the important tasks of providing secretarial help to the Organisersand solving the logistics of moving participants from Copenhagen toSams and back. Sams provided an ideal setting for the FifthWorkshop, as the island is made up of rural agricultural communities,with old villages and rustic land and seascapes.</p><p>The Fifth Workshop was attended by some 35 participants, drawnfrom among food mycology and related disciplines around the world.The workshop was highly successful, with papers devoted to mediaand methods development in food mycology, as is usual with theseworkshops. Particular emphasis was placed on the fungi which pro-duce mycotoxins, especially their ecology, and through ecology, poten-tial control measures. Sessions were also devoted to yeasts, and theinactivation of fungal spores by the use of heat and high pressure.Nearly 40 scientific papers were presented over three days of the work-shop, and these papers are the major contributions in theseProceedings.</p><p>The organisers especially wish to thank the sponsors of the FifthWorkshop: BCN Laboratories, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA; theDanish ECB5 Foundation, Copenhagen; Novozymes A/S, Bagsvrd,Denmark; LMC Centre for Advanced Food Studies, Copenhagen; theDanish Research Agency STVF, Copenhagen, though Grant Number26-03-0188; Eurofins Denmark A/S, Copenhagen and the MycologyDivision of the International Union of Microbiological Societies, fortheir support which made this workshop possible.</p><p>A.D. HockingJ.I. Pitt</p><p>R.A. SamsonU. Thrane</p><p>vi Foreword</p></li><li><p>CONTENTS</p><p>Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vContributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi</p><p>Section 1. Understanding the fungi producing important mycotoxins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1</p><p>Important mycotoxins and the fungi which produce them . . . . . . 3Jens C. Frisvad, Ulf Thrane, Robert A. Samson</p><p>and John I. Pitt</p><p>Recommendations concerning the chronic problem ofmisidentification of mycotoxigenic fungi associated with foods and feeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33</p><p>Jens C. Frisvad, Kristian F. Nielsen and Robert A. Samson</p><p>Section 2. Media and method development in food mycology . . . . 47</p><p>Comparison of hyphal length, ergosterol, mycelium dry weight, and colony diameter for quantifying growth of fungi from foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49</p><p>Marta H. Taniwaki, John I. Pitt, Ailsa D. Hockingand Graham H. Fleet</p><p>vii</p></li><li><p>Evaluation of molecular methods for the analysis of yeasts in foods and beverages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69</p><p>Ai Lin Beh, Graham H. Fleet, C. Prakitchaiwattanaand Gillian M. Heard</p><p>Standardization of methods for detecting heat resistant fungi . . 107Jos Houbraken and Robert A. Samson</p><p>Section 3. Physiology and ecology of mycotoxigenic fungi . . . . . . 113</p><p>Ecophysiology of fumonisin producers in Fusariumsection Liseola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115</p><p>Vicente Sanchis, Sonia Marn, Naresh Magan and AntonioJ. Ramos</p><p>Ecophysiology of Fusarium culmorum and mycotoxin production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123</p><p>Naresh Magan, Russell Hope and David Aldred</p><p>Food-borne fungi in fruit and cereals and their production of mycotoxins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137</p><p>Birgitte Andersen and Ulf Thrane</p><p>Black Aspergillus species in Australian vineyards: from soil to ochratoxin A in wine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153</p><p>Su-lin L. Leong, Ailsa D. Hocking, John I. Pitt,Benozir A. Kazi, Robert W. Emmett and Eileen S. Scott</p><p>Ochratoxin A producing fungi from Spanish vineyards . . . . . . . 173Marta Bau, M. Rosa Bragulat, M. Lourdes Abarca,</p><p>Santiago Minguez and F. Javier Cabaes</p><p>Fungi producing ochratoxin in dried fruits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181Beatriz T. Iamanaka, Marta H. Taniwaki, E. Vicente and </p><p>Hilary C. Menezes</p><p>An update on ochratoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin A in coffee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189</p><p>Marta H. Taniwaki</p><p>viii Contents</p></li><li><p>Contents ix</p><p>Mycobiota, mycotoxigenic fungi, and citrinin production in black olives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203</p><p>Dilek Heperkan, Burak E. Meri, Glin Sismanoglu,Gzde Dalkili and Funda K. Gler</p><p>Byssochlamys: significance of heat resistance and mycotoxin production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211</p><p>Jos Houbraken, Robert A. Samson and Jens C. Frisvad</p><p>Effect of water activity and temperature on production of aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus flavus in peanuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225</p><p>Graciela Vaamonde, Andrea Patriarca and Virginia E. Fernndez Pinto</p><p>Section 4. Control of fungi and mycotoxins in foods . . . . . . . . . . 237</p><p>Inactivation of fruit spoilage yeasts and moulds using high pressure processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239</p><p>Ailsa D. Hocking, Mariam Begum and Cindy M. Stewart</p><p>Activation of ascospores by novel food preservation techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247</p><p>Jan Dijksterhuis and Robert A. Samson</p><p>Mixtures of natural and synthetic antifungal agents . . . . . . . . . 261Aurelio Lpez-Malo, Enrique Palou, Reyna Len-Cruz</p><p>and Stella M. Alzamora</p><p>Probabilistic modelling of Aspergillus growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287Enrique Palou and Aurelio Lpez-Malo</p><p>Antifungal activity of sourdough bread cultures . . . . . . . . . . . . 307Lloyd B. Bullerman, Marketa Giesova, Yousef Hassan,</p><p>Dwayne Deibert and Dojin Ryu</p><p>Prevention of ochratoxin A in cereals in Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . 317Monica Olsen, Nils Jonsson, Naresh Magan, John Banks,</p><p>Corrado Fanelli, Aldo Rizzo, Auli Haikara,Alan Dobson, Jens Frisvad, Stephen Holmes, Juhani Olkku,Sven-Johan Persson and Thomas Brjesson</p></li><li><p>x Contents</p><p>Recommended methods for food mycology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343</p><p>Appendix 1 Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349</p><p>Appendix 2 International Commission on Food Mycology . . 358</p><p>Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361</p></li><li><p>CONTRIBUTORS</p><p>M. Lourdes Abarca, Departament de Sanitat i dAnatomia Animals,Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona,Spain</p><p>David Aldred, Applied Mycology Group, Biotechnology Centre,Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4DT, UK</p><p>Stella M. Alzamora, Departament de Industrias, Facultad de CienciasExactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, CiudadUniversitaria 1428, Buenos Aires, Argentina</p><p>Birgitte Andersen, Center for Microbial Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby,Denmark</p><p>Marta Bau, Departament de Sanitat i dAnatomia Animals, UniversitatAutnoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain</p><p>John Banks, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO411LZ, UK</p><p>Mariam Begum, Food Science Australia, CSIRO, P.O. Box 52, NorthRyde, NSW 1670, Australia</p><p>Ai Lin Beh, Food Science and Technology, School of ChemicalEngineering and Industrial Chemistry, University of New SouthWales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia</p><p>Thomas Brjesson, Svenska Lantmnnen, stra hamnen, SE-531 87Lidkping, Sweden</p><p>xi</p></li><li><p>M. Rosa Bragulat, Departament de Sanitat i dAnatomia Animals,Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona,Spain</p><p>Lloyd B. Bullerman, Department of Food Science and Technology,University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0919, USA</p><p>F. Javier Cabaes, Departament de Sanitat i dAnatomia Animals,Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona,Spain</p><p>Gzde Dalkili, Department of Food Engineering, Istanbul TechnicalUniversity, Istanbul, 34469 Maslak, Turkey</p><p>Dwayne Deibert, Department of Food Science and Technology,University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0919, USA</p><p>Jan Dijksterhuis, Department of Applied Research and Services,Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Fungal BiodiversityCentre, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT, Utrecht, Netherlands</p><p>Alan Dobson, Microbiology Department, University College Cork,Cork, Ireland</p><p>Robert W. Emmett, Department of Primary Industries, PO Box 905,Mildura, Vic. 3502, Australia</p><p>Corrado Fanelli, Laboratorio di Micologia, Univerisit LaSapienza, Largo Cristina di Svezia 24, I-00165 Roma, Italy</p><p>Virginia E. Fernndez Pinto, Laboratorio de Microbiologa deAlimentos, Departamento de Qumica Orgnica, AreaBromatologa, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabelln II, 3Piso, 1428, Buenos Aires, Argentina</p><p>Graham H. Fleet, Food Science and Technology, School of ChemicalEngineering and Industrial Chemistry, University of New SouthWales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia</p><p>Jens C. Frisvad, BioCentrum-DTU, Building 221, TechnicalUniversity of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark</p><p>Marketa Giesova, Department of Dairy and Fat Technology, Instituteof Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic</p><p>Funda K. Gler Istanbul Technical University, Dept. of FoodEngineering Istanbul, Turkey, 34469 Maslak</p><p>Auli Haikara, VTT Biotechnology, PO Box 1500, FIN-02044 Espoo,Finland</p><p>Yousef Hassan, Department of Food Science and Technology,University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0919, USA</p><p>Gillian M. Heard, Food Science and Technology, School of ChemicalEngineering and Industrial Chemistry, University of New SouthWales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia</p><p>xii Contributors</p></li><li><p>Dilek Heperkan, Istanbul Technical University, Dept. of FoodEngineering Istanbul, 34469 Maslak, Turkey</p><p>Ailsa D. Hocking, Food Science Australia, CSIRO, PO Box 52, NorthRyde, NSW 1670, Australia</p><p>Stephen Holmes, ADGEN Ltd, Nellies Gate, Auchincruive, Ayr KA65HW, UK</p><p>Russell Hope, Applied Mycology Group, Biotechnology Centre,Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4DT, UK</p><p>Jos Houbraken, Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, PO Box85167, 3508 AD, Utrecht, T...</p></li></ul>